Study on Ground Water Quality of Greater Visakhapatnam City,

Andhra Pradesh from July, 2007 to June, 2008.

 

G. Srinivas Rao1* and G. Nageswara Rao2

1Department of Chemistry, GITAM Institute of Science, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam – 530 045, India.

2School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam – 530 003, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: gollapallinr@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Water samples were collected from 14 open wells, 34 bore wells and two reservoirs to study the ground water quality of Greater Visakhapatnam city. The samples were analyzed for the parameters like Temperature, pH, Conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Dissolved Oxygen, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride and Alkalinity. Low ionic concentrations in ground waters far (7-14 km distance) from the sea coast were observed which are within the permissible limits of WHO and ISI standards. Ground waters close to the sea coast  i.e. one to two kilometers distance (60 to 150 feet depth) have high values of Conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Hardness, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium  which are not in permissible limits. 

 

KEYWORDS: Ground water quality, Visakhapatnam, salt water.

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

The major sources of water are rainfall, surface water in the form of rivers, lakes and groundwater in wells and bore wells. Groundwater is used for domestic, agriculture and industrial purpose in most parts of the world. Rural population living in India depends on ground water for domestic and agriculture purpose. Groundwater is the only alternative option even for the urban centers having well planned, designed and executed water supply systems, like Visakhapatnam city during the periods of water scarcity due to shortfall of rain. Groundwater is the only source of water for different locations, where the municipal water supply facilities are not made available. Nowadays, the groundwater potential and its quality level in major cities and urban centers is getting deteriorated due to the population explosion, urbanization, industrialization and the failure of monsoon and improper management of rain water.

 

The ground water quality is normally characterized by different physico-chemical characteristics. These parameters change widely due to the various types of pollution, seasonal fluctuation, groundwater extraction, etc. Hence a continuous monitoring on groundwater becomes mandatory in order to minimize the groundwater pollution and have control on the pollution causing agents.1-4

 

GEOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA:

Visakhapatnam situated along the East coast of India is one of the largest industrial and port cities of Andhra Pradesh state. Mean annual rainfall is 978 mm. The area is characterized by undulating topography, sloping towards the Bay of Bengal. Geological formations belong to the Precambrian Eastern Ghats and Quaternary sediments. The rocks are made up of mainly khondalites, which consist of quartz (55-60%), potash feldspar (15-20%), garnet (12%), sillimanite (15%) and ores (3%)5. The Quaternary sediments comprise laterites and surfacial deposits (red sediments and coastal sands), which occur over the country rocks. Red sediments are the dominant soils. At many places, CaCO3 concretions (kankar and/or concrete) occur in the red sediments. Isolated patches of backwater zones occur due to tidal effects6.

 

Development of groundwater is through open dug wells (shallow wells) and bore wells (deep wells). Groundwater exists in the weathered zone at shallow depth as well as in the fractured zone at depth. Thickness of the weathered/fractured zones extends up to a depth of 55 m from the ground surface, depending upon the local topography. The weathered zone corresponds to shallow wells and the fractured zone to deep wells. Clay horizons occur, where the intensive weathering of khondalites are present. Depth to groundwater level ranges from 5.5 to 12.6 m below ground level, following the drainage and topography.  The important major streams are Ootagedda, Hanumanthavakagedda, Maddikagedda, Marikavalasagedda and Peddagedda. The drainage is sub-dendritic controlled by structural and topographical features, and is ephemeral in nature. The river and streams flow towards east and join the Bay of Bengal7. It has a major historic sea port known as Visakhapatnam port located along latitude 83017’ and longitude 17065’ in the Bay of Bengal (Fig.1). Recently Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation, adjoining Gajuwaka municipality and some suburban are merged together to form Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC).                              

Fig. 1: Location map of sampling stations

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Fifty sampling points (bore wells, open wells and two reservoirs) were selected from different locations in the study area. Sample station names, depth, latitude, longitude and source type are given in Table 1. The sources of ground water samples are divided in to two categories: 1) sources nearer to the sea coast (1-2 km distance) and 2) sources far away from the sea coast (7-14 km distance). Sampling was done from July 2007 to June 2008, on monthly basis. Water samples from identified bore wells and open wells were collected in precleaned two liter polythene bottles and were analyzed for 13 parameters as given in Table 2. The physico-chemical analysis was carried out as per the standard methods8. Total dissolved solids is calculated indirectly from Electrical Conductivity as 0.64× EC (µS/cm)9 .

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The averages of physico-chemical parameters of ground water samples collected from different sampling stations during July 2007 to June 2008 are given in Table 3. A comparison of the physico-chemical characteristics of the studied ground water samples has also been made with BIS10 and WHO11 standards (Table 4).

 

TEMPERATURE

The temperature is basically important for its effect on the chemical and biological reactions in the organisms in water.12 The changes in atmospheric temperature with seasonal variation bring corresponding changes in water temperature. The difference in atmospheric temperature and ground water temperature are influenced by high specific heat13, 14. In the present study the maximum temperature recorded was 32.50C and the minimum was 23.50C . Fig.2

 

pH

pH is a valuable guide in showing the acid-alkali balance of water. In case of pollution by acidic and alkali wastes the pH serves as an index to denote the extent of pollution.15 The pH values of study samples were uniform in the ground aquifer, which might be attributed to the buffer (CO32−, HCO3) normally present in the ground water.16 The lower pH value tends to make water corrosive and higher pH results in the taste complaint and can have negative impact on skin and eyes.17-18 In the present study, a maximum pH value of 9.22 was observed at sample station number 34 and a minimum value of 6.5 at sample station number 29. The maximum value is not in the presumable limit of ISI and WHO standards. Fig.3

 

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY:

The conductivity of water is influenced by the concentration of ions and its nutrient status. Based on the electrical conductivity values the water quality can be classified as poor, medium or good19. The recommended electrical conductivity value for drinking water is 10 mmhos/cm.20 In the present study maximum conductivity value 6.74 mmhos/cm is observed at sample station no.3 and minimum value 0.22 mmhos/cm is at sample station no. 49. Fig.4

 

DISSOLVED OXYGEN:

The concentration of dissolved oxygen depends upon the physical, chemical and biological activities spread in the water body. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is an important test to study the quality of water. In the present study a maximum DO value of 11.1 mg/L is observed at sample station no. 30 and minimum value 0.8 mg/L is at sample station no. 10. Fig.5

 

HARDNESS: 

Total hardness is defined as the sum of the calcium and magnesium concentrations, both expressed as calcium carbonate, in milligrams per liter.  Water hardness was understood to be a measure of the capacity of water to precipitate soap. Due to presence of calcium and magnesium salts soap is precipitated chiefly. In the present study a maximum hardness of 1060 mg/L is observed at sample station no.3 and a minimum value of 37.2 mg/L at sample stations 48 and 49. And also observed that the sampling stations nearer to the sea coast have high hardness values than the sampling stations far away distance from the sea coast.  The variation is shown in Fig. 6.

 


 

Fig. 2: Seasonal variation of Temperature

                                                

Fig. 3: Seasonal and spatial variation of pH

 

Fig. 4: Seasonal and spatial variation of Conductivity

 

Fig. 5: Seasonal and spatial variation of DO

 

Fig. 6: Seasonal and spatial variation of Hardness

   

Fig.7: Seasonal and spatial variation of Calcium

 

Fig. 8: Seasonal and spatial variation of Magnesium

  

Fig. 9: Seasonal and spatial variation of Alkalinity

 

Fig. 10: Seasonal and spatial variation of Chloride

Fig. 11: Seasonal and spatial variation of Nitrate

        

Fig. 12: Seasonal and spatial variation of Sodium

    

Fig. 13: Seasonal and spatial variation of Potassium


 

CALCIUM:

Depending on the source and treatment of the water the calcium content may range from zero to several hundred milligrams per liter. Zafar21 showed that calcium is one of the most important elements, which influence the distribution of diatoms in water bodies. In the present study a maximum Calcium value of 273.16 mg/L is observed at sample station no. 3 and a minimum value of 8.16 mg/L at sample stations 19. The sampling stations nearer to the sea coast (from 1 to 13) have more calcium concentrations than the sampling stations (from 34 to 50) far away from the sea coast as shown in Fig. 7.     

 

MAGNESIUM:

Mg adds to the hardness of water and along with calcium possesses the problem of scale formation22. The increase in the Magnesium value can be attributed to domestic waste, industrial effluents and also fall in water level. In the present study maximum (148.23 mg/L) and minimum (2.25 mg/L) Magnesium values are observed at sample stations 6, 29, and 35, 44 respectively. Higher Magnesium values are observed at the sampling stations 1-15, near the sea coast, compared to the sampling stations far away from the sea coast as shown in Fig 8. 

 

ALKALINITY:    

Alkalinity of water is a measure of its capacity to neutralize acids23. Besides carbonates and bicarbonates any salts of weak acids such of silicates, phosphates and borates also cause alkalinity.24 Surface water and ground water vary widely in bicarbonate ion concentration25. In the present study maximum and minimum alkalinity values are 735 mg/L and 52.5 mg/L, respectively. The maximum value is not in the permissible limit. High Alkalinity concentrations (>250 mg/L) are observed at sampling stations 1-28 near to the sea coast and low concentrations (<250 mg/L) are observed at sampling stations far away from the sea coast (Fig. 9)

 

CHLORIDE:

Chloride is important ion in the ground water. If there is accumulation of chloride at higher concentration, it may affect some persons who are already suffering from diseases of heart and kidney17. The chloride content in fresh water is largely influenced by evaporation and precipitation26. In the present study maximum chloride value 1116.7 mg/L is observed at sample station no.3 and minimum value 18.4 mg/L is observed at sample station no 49. High concentrations (i.e. >600 mg/L) of chloride are observed at sampling stations 1-13 near to the sea coast and less concentrations (<250 mg/L) are observed at sampling stations far away from the sea coast (Fig.10).

 

NITRATE:

Nitrate is contributed in the ground water by nitrogenous fertilizers, organic matters, human and animal wastes and industrial effluents through the biochemical activities of micro-organisms. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is toxic. It causes blue babies or methemglobemia disease in infants and gastric carcinomas.. There was a link between nitrater and cancer indicated by the various studies.27  In the present study maximum Nitrate value 113.32 mg/L is observed at sample station number 7 and minimum value 0.12 mg/L observed at sample station number 17. The maximum value (113.32 mg/L) is not in permissible limit. High concentrations (>45 mg/L) of nitrate are observed at sampling stations near the sea coast and low concentrations (<45 mg/L) are observed at sampling stations far away from the sea coast as shown in Fig.11.

 

SODIUM:

Sodium Is an important cation in the groundwater. The ratio of sodium to total cations is important in agriculture and human physiology. Soil permeability can be harmed by a high sodium ratio. In large concentrations it may affect persons with cardiac difficulties. In the present study maximum sodium value 218 mg/L is observed at sample station number 3 and minimum value 2.9 mg/L is observed at sample station number 41. The maximum value is not in the permissible limit. Maximum Sodium concentrations (>200 mg/L) are observed at sampling stations near the sea coast and less concentrations of sodium (<200 mg/L) are observed at sampling stations far away from the sea coast (Fig.12).

POTASSSIUM:

Potassium is assimilated by plants and incorporated into a number of clay-mineral structures28 Potassium is an essential element in both plant and human nutrition and occurs in ground waters as a result of mineral dissolution from decomposing plant material, and from agricultural run off.. In the present study the maximum potassium value 86 mg/L is observed at sample station number 6 and minimum value 0.25 mg/L is observed at sample station number 37. The maximum value is not in the permissible limit.

 

CONCLUSION:

 Now a days the people are liking to live along the coastal zone, due to this the number apartments and multistoried buildings are increases and causes inhibiting the percolation of rain water in to groundwater, so there is no proper recharge of groundwater. And also the apartment authorities are over drawing groundwater from bore wells for domestic and for construction of high-rise buildings. It may cause the sea water intrusion into the groundwater reservoir along the Beach road. This is evident from the high Total dissolved solids, Conductivity, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate, Sodium and Potassium values. Similar observations were made by other researches.29, 30 The sampling stations (from 1 to 20) near the sea coast crossed the permissible limits of water quality parameters. The sampling stations far away from the sea coast have proper recharge hence they have the water quality parameters within the permissible limits

 

 


Table1: Sample station name, Source type, Depth, Latitude and Longitude of various Sampling stations collected in Greater Visakhapatnam City

Sl No

Sample Station

Source

Depth in feet

Latitude

Longitude

1

Opp. Poleramma Temple, Kota Veedhi, Old Town

Open Well

70

17041`

83017`

2

St. Alloysis School, Near Old Post Office

Open Well

70

17041`

83017`

3

Adjacent to St.Parish School, Old Town

Open Well

70

17041`

83017`

4

Adjacent to House No.22-49-59A, Old Town

Open Well

70

17041`

83018`

5

Adjacent to House No.22-5-84, Old Town

Bore Well

60

17041`

83018`

6

Road adjacent to Anjaneeyaswami Temple, Beach

Bore Well

60

17041`

83018`

7

Adjacent to House No.16-49-3, Jalaripeta

Bore Well

60

17042`

83018`

8

Adjacent to HouseNo.15-16-19, Srirangapuram

Bore Well

60

17042`

83018`

9

Radha Beach Residency, Beach Road

Bore Well

60

17042`

83019`

10

Opposite Radha Beach Residency, Beach Road

Open Well

35

17042`

83019`

11

Kali Mata temple,  R.K.Beach

Bore Well

80

17042’

83019`

12

Punarvasu Apartments, Pandurangapuram

Bore Well

150

17042.5`

83019`

13

Yoga Village, Andhra University, Beach Road

Open Well

50

17042`

83019`

14

Balaji Towers, Near VUDA park, Beach Road

Bore Well

70

17043`

83020`

15

Near Den, VUDA park, Beach Road

Bore Well

80

17043`

83020`

16

Adjacent to House No.8-6-33, China Waltair

Bore Well

110

17043`

83020`

17

Near Poojalal block, RCD Hospital

Bore Well

110

17043`

83020`

18

Sri Venkateswara Swami Temple, Pedda Waltair

Bore Well

120

17043`

83020`

19

Hostel Premises, Santhi Ashram, LB Colony

Bore Well

110

17043`

83020`

20

Santhi Ashram, LB Colony

Bore Well

110

17043`

83020`

21

H.No.4-53-4. G. Himakara Rao, LB Colony

Bore Well

110

17043`

83020`

22

Resapuvanipalem, MVP Colony

Open Well

25

17044`

83020`

23

Adjacent to K.Koral Rao House, Opp.Appughar

Open Well

23

17044`

83020`

24

Little Angles School, MVP Colony.

Bore Well

120

17044`

83020`

25

House of T.Ramamurthy, Opp.Ropeway, Kilasa Hill

Bore Well

120

17044`

83020

26

Jodugullapalem, Beach Road

Bore Well

-

17045`

83021`

27

H.No.242-B.Venkatrao, Visalakshi Nagar

Bore Well

-

17045`

83020`

28

Opp. House of J.Appalaraju, Mudasarlova

Bore Well

-

17045`

83018`

29

Krishnama Naidu House, Hanumanthwaka

Bore Well

-

17045`

83019`

30

MIG-VUDA Apartments, Venkojipalem

Bore Well

-

170044`

83019`

31

St. Pauls Public School, Pittapuram Colony

Bore Well

-

17044`

83019`

32

Opp. Plot No.9-17-39, CBM Compound

Bore Well

80

17043`

83018`

33

Srinivasa High Tech. Car Wash, Ram Nagar

Bore Well

80

17043`

83018`

34

Mudasarlova Reservoir

Reservoir

-

17045`

83018`

35

Substation, Opp. Mudasarlova Park

Bore Well

110

17045`

83018`

36

Opp.Pydithallamma Gudi, Ramakrishnapuram

Open Well

30

17046`

83017`

37

Seioun prayer hall, Ramakrishnapuram

Bore Well

90

17045`

83017`

38

Srikrishnapuram Bus Stop

Open Well

40

17046`

83016`

39

Pineapple Colony

Open Well

30

17046`

83016`

40

Pineapple Colony

Bore Well

110

17046`

83016`

41

Adavivaram Bus Stop

Bore Well

130

17046`

83015`

42

Entrance of Simhachalam Ghat Road

Bore Well

130

17046`

83014`

43

Simhachalam

Open Well

80

17046`

83014`

44

Meghadrigedda Reservoir

Reservoir

-

17045`

83011`

45

Kothammavari Gudi, Meghadrigedda Reservoir

Open Well

30

17045`

83011`

46

Andhra Cements Limited, Meghadrigedda Reservoir

Bore Well

150

17045`

83011`

47

A.P. Residential School, Meghadrigedda Reservoir

Bore Well

130

17045`

83012`

48

B.C. Colony, Meghadrigedda Reservoir

Bore Well

100

17045`

83012`

49

T.R.S. Bhavanam, B.C. Colony, Meghadrigedda

Bore Well

100

17045`

83012`

50

House of N.Rama Rao, B.C. Colony, Meghadrigedda

Open Well

30

17045`

83012`

 

Table 2: Analytical methods and equipment used in the study

Sl.No

Parameter

Method

Instrument/Equipment

1

Temperature

Laboratory method

0.1o C scale Thermometer

2

pH

Electrometric

pH Meter

3

Conductivity

Electrometric

Conductivity Meter

4

DO

Iodometric method

-

5

Hardness

Titration by EDTA

-

6

Calcium

Titration by EDTA

-

7

Magnesium

Titration by EDTA

-

8

Alkalinity

Titration by H2SO4

-

9

Chloride

Titration by AgNO3

-

10

Nitrate

Ultraviolet screening

UV-VIS Spectrophotometer

11

Sodium

Flame emission

Flame Photometer

12

Potassium

Flame emission

Flame Photometer

 

Table-3: Averages of various parameters of category-I sampling stations from July 2007 to June 2008

Source

Temp.

pH

Cond.

DO

Hard.

Calc.

Mag.

Alkal.

Chlor.

Nit.

Sod.

Pot.

TDS

1

28.05

8.044

0.834

5.042

309

85.52

23.91

214.4

208.7

38.29

42.93

26.25

534

2

28.69

8.048

1.808

6.05

639.7

185.7

53.77

210

634.1

52.9

93.19

23.87

1157

3

28.18

7.813

2.34

1.883

897.8

243.7

74.51

293.1

939.7

22.7

147.5

31.63

1498

4

27.9

8.307

0.998

3.4

376.3

109.8

26.51

258.1

254.2

24.57

75.08

27.13

638.4

5

29.06

7.883

1.165

5.617

399.6

97.9

40.08

170.6

248.3

81.98

73.78

34

745.6

6

29.13

7.919

1.339

5.167

630.3

160.8

57.86

196.9

398.8

63.77

86.51

8.33

857.1

7

29.05

7.75

0.957

5.867

327.7

94.23

25.59

179.4

196.5

68.79

70.61

5.08

612.3

8

28.59

7.83

0.837

5.075

406.9

106.7

34.36

175

163.4

41.73

40.11

8.958

535.5

9

29.13

7.684

1.089

6.308

405.6

98.81

40.58

153.1

314.2

31.9

58.13

4.79

704.6

10

27.78

7.965

0.714

3.042

279.9

81.51

17.82

245

205.1

7.774

55.53

17.08

447.4

11

29.57

7.746

0.659

4.033

223.5

46.02

26.42

201.3

157.2

17.18

36.93

2

421.9

12

29.37

7.547

0.502

5.158

205.6

54.6

17.36

175

109.6

8.671

21.2

2.125

321.1

13

29.05

7.782

0.591

5.992

236.5

69.78

17.35

183.8

146.5

8.688

29.28

3.25

378.1

14

28.72

8.021

0.623

6.517

245.1

54.2

29.57

223.1

150.7

4.808

40.68

3.25

398.9

15

28.2

7.957

0.698

5.892

269.1

54.89

35.48

266.9

183.2

8.333

24.03

3.75

446.4

16

28.99

7.506

0.513

3.3

312.2

80.24

27.84

192.5

82.26

6.912

17.73

4.25

328.5

17

28.77

7.768

0.386

5.017

234.4

62.66

26.7

214.4

63.73

3.363

12.93

2.5

246.9

18

29.01

7.735

0.319

4.142

203.3

52.91

19.64

161.9

59.72

3.661

12.48

2.875

204.3

19

28.98

8.078

0.888

4.833

222.1

32.81

32.78

328.1

222.6

5.263

40.43

4.5

568

20

28.38

8.037

0.801

5.625

270.1

59.23

30.27

315

174.7

5.467

53.45

7.75

512.5

21

29.65

7.991

0.549

5.767

244

44.31

33.71

249.4

90.81

7.415

28.3

17.38

351.5

22

28.11

7.943

1.013

3.708

330.8

36.41

59.79

398.1

229.6

13.27

64.2

2

648.5

23

28.26

7.788

1.066

4.233

387.6

61.93

58.49

371.9

282.7

10.4

77.88

5.125

682.1

24

29.56

7.611

0.788

5.592

275.1

42.73

40.63

315

140.4

7.685

60.43

2.5

504.5

25

29.11

7.669

0.759

4.55

287.3

57.93

33.2

271.3

136.8

11.11

45.35

3.625

485.9

26

29.12

7.695

0.755

3.958

263

41.11

45.4

319.4

143.9

6.036

55.75

1.5

483.2

27

27.78

8.043

0.646

7.125

252.5

42.36

35.18

253.8

131

4.94

42.93

2.25

413.3

28

28.53

7.504

0.366

4.217

184.2

43.46

20.89

210

91.71

3.551

40.5

2.625

234.1

29

28.5

7.42

0.415

4.15

203.8

51.36

18.84

175

98.99

5.923

41.83

9.5

265.6

30

29.25

7.431

0.495

6.2

214.8

49.41

22.97

214.4

104.9

5.608

49.1

10.63

316.8

31

28.62

7.538

0.563

4.467

284.1

65.52

30.71

201.3

130.6

14.21

37.58

8.5

360

32

29.34

7.22

0.517

3.792

274.3

66.99

26.75

196.9

95.31

11.09

40.7

8.25

330.7

33

28.84

7.676

0.426

4.167

239.9

54.42

28.83

210

75.3

15.73

35.13

6.875

272.5

Averages of various parameters of category-II sampling stations from July-07 to June-08

Source

Temp.

pH

Cond.

DO

Hard.

Calc.

Mag.

Alkal.

Chlor.

Nit.

Sod.

Pot.

TDS

34

27.89

8.39

0.366

7.633

189

40.51

21.79

170.6

98.92

3.272

38.18

7.625

234.1

35

28.6

7.25

0.225

2.842

113.1

32.39

19.14

140

39.72

4.28

17.83

4.375

144

36

27.35

7.465

0.968

3.383

459.9

80.13

63.31

240.6

289.7

6.035

36.03

2.375

619.2

37

28.68

7.647

0.725

3.108

307.6

46.23

46.95

271.3

178.4

4.975

23.46

0.75

464

38

27.36

7.41

0.568

4.35

247.4

71.14

19.72

188.1

128.1

7.461

31.12

2.56

363.2

39

28.02

7.588

0.74

3.292

356.5

72.66

43.33

240.6

182.8

7.561

26.75

1.438

473.6

40

29.02

7.704

0.552

3.592

204.3

41.82

24.95

240.6

94.52

7.328

22.43

1.083

353.1

41

27.73

7.655

0.265

4.975

135.5

39.77

11.95

183.8

47.4

1.893

6.913

2.25

169.6

42

28.33

7.288

0.571

4.183

245.9

52.5

31.66

196.9

119.5

8.165

28.25

2.33

365.3

43

27.82

7.548

0.825

5.783

403.6

91.23

46.25

179.4

214.2

12.81

21.63

8.25

528

44

27.49

8.329

0.258

7.6

135.1

26.49

17.94

166.3

54.63

2.929

22.79

5.438

165.3

45

27.37

8.01

0.268

3.767

128.2

31.2

14.69

175

55.27

2.788

11.34

1.063

171.7

46

28.36

7.213

0.458

4.767

245.8

55.37

27.2

205.6

47.92

1.67

23.8

13.13

293.3

47

28.88

7.732

0.256

2.9

141.8

40.79

13.98

166.3

52.56

3.993

18.93

6.313

163.7

48

28.98

7.717

0.183

5.633

115.2

30.41

17.22

157.5

27.51

2.124

11.33

6.438

117.3

49

28.86

7.703

0.166

4.233

95.63

20.85

12.85

153.1

25.85

1.793

17.5

4.063

106.1

50

28.14

7.676

0.936

4.117

316.1

42.16

56.54

297.5

230.7

3.973

42.11

3.5

598.9

 

 

Table 4: Comparison of the two categories sampling stations ground water quality of the studied area with WHO and BIS drinking water standards

Parameter

World Health Organization

Indian Standards

Observed average range

P

E

P

E

Category-I  

Category-II

pH

6.5-8.5

6.5-9.2

7.0-8.5

7.0-9.2

7.22-8.3

7.21-8.39

EC

-

-

0.1-5.0

0.1-6.0

0.31-2.34

0.16-0.96

DO

4.6-6.0

-

-

-

1.88-7.12

2.84-7.63

Hardness

300

600

100

500

184.2-897.8

95.63-459.9

Calcium

75

200

75

200

32.81-243.7

20.85-91.23

Magnesium

30

100

50

150

17.35-74.51

11.95-63.31

Alkalinity

-

-

200

600

153.1-398.1

140-297.5

Nitrate

45

-

45

-

3.36-81.98

1.67-12.81

Chloride

200

600

250

1000

59.72-939.7

25.85-289.7

Sodium

100

-

100

 

12.48-147.5

6.91-42.11

Potassium

10

-

10

 

1.5-39

0.75-13.13

All the parameters are expressed in mg/l except pH, EC (mS/cm)


 

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Received on 01.11.2010        Modified on 15.11.2010

Accepted on 28.11.2010        © AJRC All right reserved

Asian J. Research Chem. 4(3): March 2011; Page 481-490