Assessment of physico-chemical characteristics of ground water quality of some areas of Imphal West district of Manipur during monsoon – 2nd phase

 

Nandababu Singh Laishram

Department of Chemistry, D.M. College of Science, Imphal – 795001 Manipur, India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: l.nandababu@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Thirteen (13) ground water samples were collected from the hand pumps of different sampling sites located within Imphal West district of Manipur during monsoon of 2014. They were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, TDS (total dissolved solids), electrical conductivity (EC), total alkalinity (TA), CO32-, HCO3-, total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl-. In case of ground water (S-12) of Wangdei Meitei Leikai, Langol, the values of all the physico-chemical parameters are within the desirable  limits of BIS standards for drinking water as well as that of WHO and it is found to be fit for drinking from physico-chemical analyses point of view. However, in case of other remaining twelve (12) ground waters (S-1 to S-11 and S-13), the values of total alkalinity are beyond desirable limit (200mg/L)  but below the permissible limit (600 mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water. Again in case of ground water represented by S-2, the concentration of Mg2+ is beyond the desirable limit (30mg/L) but below the permissible limit (100mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water. So, such ground waters (S-1 to S-11 and S-13) may also be used for drinking purpose in absence of alternate sources. However, some suitable treatments are necessary so as to keep the values of total alkalinity for ground waters S-1 to S-11 and S-13 and concentration of Mg2+ for ground water S-2 within the corresponding desirable limits of BIS standards for drinking water. Again, all the ground waters (S-1 to S-13) are found to be fit for other domestic purpose as their TDS values are less than 1000mg/L. On the basis of values of RSC(residual sodium carbonate), electrical conductivity and SAR(sodium adsorption ratio), all the thirteen (13) ground waters (S-1 to S-13) are found to be fit for irrigation purpose.

 

Further, on the basis of correlation  co-efficient (r) values between various variable pairs of physico-chemical parameters, strong positive correlation exist between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC); and between Na+ and Cl-. Again, HCO3- shows moderately positive correlations with Ca2+ and Na+ showing that total alkalinity of different ground waters, is due to the presence of Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 mainly.

 

KEYWORDS: Ground water, monsoon, physico-chemical parameters, drinking, domestic and irrigation

 


 

 

INTRODUCTION:

With increasing population growth all over the world, rate of urbanization increases. Consequently quantity of surface water bodies decreases day by day. This leads to extensive exploration of ground water to meet the requirements for consumption of human beings for drinking, other domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes mainly. Out of total global water resources, ground water is about 0.6% and out of which only 0.3% is extractable economically.1 Chances of ground water pollution is somewhat lesser compared with that of surface water bodies which is mainly caused by increasing rapid population  growth of people and hence with increasing urbanization  and industrialization all over the world.2 However, such ground water may not always be safe for drinking, other domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes. Therefore, it is always necessary to examine whether such ground water is fit for drinking, other domestic, irrigation and industrial purpose from time to time. In this regard, many researchers of different countries had carried out extensive researches on qualities of ground water.3-7  In India also, many researchers of different states, had carried out such researches on the qualities of ground water in order to examine whether such ground water is fit for drinking, other domestic and irrigation purposes mainly.8-13

 

The present aim of this research work is to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water quality of some areas of Imphal West district of Manipur during September of monsoon period of 2014. This is in continuation of my former research work on ground water quality of some areas of Imphal East and Imphal West districts during pre-monsoon of 2014.14

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

All the chemicals were of AR grade and were used as received. The thirteen (13) ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) were collected from hand humps of different sampling sites, in well sterilized polythene bottles of one litre capacity each. Guidelines of sampling and preservation15 were strictly followed. The samples were collected from thirteen different locations of Imphal West district during September (monsoon) of 2014. They were analysed for physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, TDS (total dissolved solids), electrical conductivity (EC), total alkalinity(TA), CO32-, HCO3-, total hardness (TH), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl-. The geographical locations (longitudes and latitudes) of the thirteen sampling sites, were measured with the help of a GPS instrument and they are shown in table -1 given below:

 


 

Table-1 : Geographical positions of thirteen different sampling sites located in Imphal West district

Sample Code No. (with source)

Sampling Sites (Locations)

Longitude

Latitude

S-1(Hand pump)

Guigailong (1), Langol

93°55'36.58''E

24°50'18.73''N

S-2(Hand pump)

Guigailong (2), Langol (behind community hall)

93°55'36.44''E

24°50'23.09''N

S-3(Hand pump)

Langol Laimanai (1)

93°55'03.75''E

24°50'28.08''N

S-4(Hand pump)

Langol Laimanai (2), (near foothill)

93°55'00.46''E

24°50'30.51''N

S-5(Hand pump)

Yumjao Manbi Leikai, (Game Village –Zone III) (1)

93°54'3.00''E

24°49'29.97''N

S-6(Hand pump)

Meitei Langol, (Game Village –Zone III)(2)

93°53'50.04''E

24°49'26.05''N

S-7(Hand pump)

Game Village –Zone III(3), (Near Mary Kom’s residence)

93°53'42.23''E

24°49'29.73''N

S-8(Hand pump)

Namthalong Pt-II, Langol

93°54'52.13''E

24°50'28.77''N

S-9(Hand pump)

Lanthung Ching (1), Langol

93°54'49.50''E

24°50'13.07''N

S-10(Hand pump)

Lanthung Ching (2), Langol

93°54'43.48''E

24°50'13.17''N

S-11(Hand pump)

Game Village –Zone III(4)

93°53'54.21''E

24°49'21.00''N

S-12(Hand pump)

Wangdei Meitei Leikai, Langol

93°53'56.77''E

24°49'41.03''N

S-13(Hand pump)

Langol Ningthou Leikai

93°54'36.97''E

24°50'17.75''N

 

 


Parameters like temperature, pH, TDS and electrical conductivity were measured during the time of sampling of the thirteen different ground water samples while the values of other parameters such as total alkalinity (and hence CO32- and HCO3-), total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+ (by calculation method) and Cl- were determined in departmental research laboratory using standard methods.15 Values of Na+ (sodium) were found out by calculation method.16

               

Various equipments and brief methods used for measurements and determinations of values different physico-chemical parameters for the different ground water samples, are shown in table-2 given below :


 

Table–2: Instruments and methods used for measurements/determination of physico-chemical parameters of ground water samples.

Physico-chemical parameters measured/ determined

Instruments and methods used

 

Temperature

TDS Meter (TDS-3)(TDS/Temp.) (HIMEDIA, India)

pH

pHep® Pocket-sized pH Meter (HI 98107) (HANNA Instruments, Romania)

TDS (total dissolved solids)

TDS Meter (TDS-3)(TDS/Temp.) (HIMEDIA, India)

Electrical conductivity (EC)

Conductivity Tester (Dist 3: HI 98303) (HANNA Instruments, Romania)

Total alkalinity (TA)

By titrimetric method with standard HCl solution using phenolphthalein and methyl orange indicators

CO32- and HCO3-

By calculation method from total alkalinity values

Total hardness (TH)

EDTA titrimetric method (using Eriochrome Black T indicator)

Calcium (Ca2+)

EDTA titrimetric method (using Murexide indicator)

Magnesium (Mg2+)

By calculation method

Sodium (Na+)

By calculation method

Chloride (Cl-)

Argentometric titrimetric method (Using K2CrO4 indicator solution)

 


Values of parameters such as RSC (residual sodium carbonate) and SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) for the different ground water samples, were calculated using the following relationships16-17:

 

Where ionic concentrations were expressed in

milli-equivalents/ litre (meq/L).

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

All the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) are found to be colourless and odourless. The experimentally found values of different physico-chemical parameters for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) are shown in table-3 given below:

 


Table-3: Values of physico-chemical parameters of ground water samples

Samples Code No.

Tempt

(°C)

pH

TDS

(mg/L)

Electrical conductivity (EC) (μS/cm)

Total alkalinity (TA)

(as CaCO3)

(mg/L)

HCO3-

(mg/L)

Total

Hardness (TH)

(as CaCO3)

  (mg/L)

Ca2+

(mg/L)

Mg2+

(mg/L)

Na+

(mg/ L)

Cl-

(mg/L)

S-1

23.9

6.5

205

434

245

298.9

170

30.5

22.8

21.7

7.1

S-2

23.5

6.9

280

531

330

402.6

272

55.3

32.6

8.5

8.5

S-3

23.6

7.1

214

453

240

292.8

182

32.1

24.8

20.4

12.8

S-4

23.7

7.3

248

519

285

347.7

220

42.5

27.7

18.2

9.9

S-5

23.8

7.8

449

915

255

311.1

200

40.1

24.3

118.4

178.7

S-6

24.2

7.6

227

490

275

335.5

110

24

12.2

62.1

7.1

S-7

24.4

7.7

210

445

245

298.9

150

29.7

18.5

33.2

7.1

S-8

22.8

7.6

232

484

265

323.3

190

36.1

24.3

23.9

7.1

S-9

22.8

7.7

203

422

240

292.8

166

31.3

21.4

20.6

5.7

S-10

23.1

7.6

390

782

265

323.3

212

36.1

29.6

82.4

129

S-11

23.2

8

321

655

340

414.8

74

16

8.3

116.5

29.8

S-12

23.7

7.2

115

240

120

146.4

100

16

14.6

9.2

7.1

S-13

23.8

7.7

212

450

245

298.9

120

22.4

15.6

48.3

9.9

 

 


On the basis of the above table -3, the following discussion has been made :

 

Temperature:

The temperature of the ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) are in the range 22.8-24.4°C (table-3). Temperatures of the samples S-8 and S-9 are lowest (22.8°C each) and that of S-7 is highest (24.4°C).

 

pH Values:

The pH  values for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) are in the range 6.5-8 (table-3). Except S-1 and S-2 which are slightly acidic in nature, the samples represented by S-3 to S-13 are slightly alkaline. S-1 has lowest value of pH(6.5) while that of S-11 is highest (8). However, all the pH values for the thirteen ground water samples, are within the desirable limit (6.5 – 8.5) of BIS standards for drinking water as well as that of WHO.18-19

 

TDS (Total dissolved solids):

The TDS values for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) ranges from 115mg/L to 449mg/L (table-3). All these values of TDS are within the desirable limit (500 mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water.18 The ground water represented by S-12 has the lowest value (115 mg/L) while that of S-5 is the highest (449mg/L). As all the TDS values for the thirteen ground water samples, are less than 1000mg/L, all of them may also be used for other domestic purposes.20

 

Electrical conductivity (EC):

The electrical conductivity values for the thirteen ground water samples, are in the range 240-915 µS/cm (table-3). S-12 has the lowest value of EC(240 µS/cm) while that of S-5 is the highest (915µS/cm).

 

Total alkalinity (TA):

The values of total alkalinity for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13), are in the range 120-340mg/L (table-3). S-12 has the lowest value (120mg/L) while S-11 has the highest value of total alkalinity (340mg/L). Except the ground water (S-12) which has total alkalinity value below desirable limit, other remaining ground water samples have their values of total alkalinity values beyond desirable limit (200mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water but below permissible limit (600mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water.18

 

CO32- and HCO3-:

As the phenolphthalein alkalinity (P-alkalinity) of all thirteen ground water samples are found to be zero, it is inferred that CO32- is absent in all the samples. Therefore, alkalinity of different ground water samples is due to the presence of HCO3- ions only. The concentrations of HCO3- for different ground water samples, are in the range 146.4-414.8mg/L. S-12 has lowest concentration of HCO3- (146.4mg/L) while that of S-11 is highest (414.8mg/L).

 

Total hardness (TH):

The values of total hardness for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) ranges from 74mg/L to 272 mg/L (table-3). S-11 has the lowest value total hardness (74mg/L) while that of S-2 is the highest one (272 mg/L). All the values of total hardness for the thirteen samples (S-1 to S-13) are below the desirable limit (300mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water.18 From the values of total hardness shown in table-3, it is clearly seen that S-11 belongs to soft water category (0-75mg/L); S-6, S-7, S-12 and S-13 belong to moderately hard water category (75-150mg/L) while remaining ones such as S-1 to S-5, S-8, S-9 and S-10 belong to hard water category (150-300mg/L).20

 

Calcium (Ca2+) :

Concentrations of Ca2+ for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) are in the range 16-55.3 mg/L (table -3). S-11 and S-12 have equal and lowest concentration of Ca2+(16mg/L) while S-2 has highest concentration of Ca2+(55.3mg/L). All these concentration values of Ca2+ for the thirteen ground water samples, are below the desirable limit (75mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water.18

 

Magnesium (Mg2+):

About magnesium contents of the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13), the values are in the range 8.3-32.6mg/L (table-3). The values of concentration of Mg2+ for the samples S-1 and S-3 to S-13 are below the desirable limit (30mg/L) while that of S-2 is above the desirable limit but below the permissible limit (100mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water.18

 

Sodium (Na+) :

Regarding the sodium contents for the thirteen ground water samples, the concentrations of sodium for the different samples are in the range 8.5-118.4mg/L (table-3). All the values are below the threshold limit (200mg/L) of WHO for drinking water.19. S-2 has lowest concentration (8.5mg/L) of Na+ while S-5 has highest concentration (118.4 mg/L).

 

Chloride (Cl-) :

The concentrations of Cl- for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) ranges from 5.7mg/L to 178.7mg/L (table-3). All these values are below the desirable limit (250mg/L) of BIS standards for drinking water.18 S-9 has the lowest concentration of Cl- (5.7mg/L) while that of S-5 is the highest (178.7mg/L).

 

Ground water quality for irrigation:

The values of RSC(residual sodium carbonate) and SAR(sodium adsorption ratio) for the thirteen ground water samples (S-1 to S-13) are shown in table-4 given below :

 


 

Table-4 : Values of RSC and SAR for different ground water samples

Sample Code No.

S-1

S-2

S-3

S-4

S-5

S-6

S-7

S-8

S-9

S-10

S-11

S-12

S-13

RSC(Residual sodium carbonate) (meq/L)

1.50

1.15

1.15

1.30

1.10

3.29

1.89

1.49

1.47

1.06

5.31

0.4

2.49

SAR(Sodium adsorption ratio)

0.7

0.2

0.7

0.5

3.6

2.6

1.2

0.8

0.7

2.5

5.9

0.4

1.9

 


In the above table-4, it is clearly seen that ground waters represented by S-2, S-3, S-5, S-10 and S-12 have their values of RSC less than 1.25meq/L and belong to excellent category (RSC value <1.25 meq/L) for irrigation purpose while that of S-1, S-4, S-7, S-8, S-9 and S-13 are within the good quality category (RSC value in the range 1.25-2.5 meq/L) for irrigation purpose.1,16.

 

Again it is evident from table-3 that only ground  water (S-12) belong to the category of excellent quality for irrigation (0-250 µS/cm); S-1 to S-4, S-6 to S-9, S-11 and S-13 belong to category of good quality for irrigation (250-750µS/cm) while S-5 and S-10 belong to permissible category for irrigation(750-2000 µS/cm).17

However, the values of SAR for the thirteen ground water samples represented by S-1 to S-13, are in the range 0.2-5.9 and they belong to the excellent category of water for irrigation (SAR value upto 10).1,17 Summing up, all ground waters represented by S-1 to S-13, are fit for irrigation purpose.

 

Statistical analysis based on correlation co-efficient (r) values:

The calculated values of correlation co-efficient (r) of different variable pairs of physico-chemical parameters for the thirteen ground waters samples (S-1 to S-13), are shown in table-5 given below:

 


 

 

Table-5: Correlation co-efficient (r) values between different variable pairs of physico-chemical parameters of ground water samples

 

Temp.

pH

TDS

EC

TA

HCO3-

TH

Ca2+

Mg2+

Na+

Cl-

Temp.

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

pH

-0.195

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TDS

-0.172

0.377

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EC

-0.146

0.375

0.999

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TA

-0.172

0.179

0.533

0.550

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

HCO3-

-0.172

0.179

0.533

0.550

1

1

 

 

 

 

 

TH

-0.199

-0.402

0.363

0.364

0.303

0.303

1

 

 

 

 

Ca2+

-0.136

-0.332

0.397

0.405

0.427

0.427

0.976

1

 

 

 

Mg2+

-0.248

-0.450

0.314

0.310

0.175

0.175

0.979

0.911

1

 

 

Na+

-0.019

0.650

0.790

0.790

0.367

0.367

-0.283

-0.225

-0.325

1

 

Cl-

-0.081

0.332

0.880

0.870

0.068

0.068

0.257

0.230

0.270

0.727

1

 

 


From the above table-5, it is clearly seen that strong positive correlation (r=0.999) is there between TDS and EC showing that electrical conductivity (EC) of ground water increases with the increase of its TDS value. The strong positive correlation (r=0.727) between Na+ and Cl- shows the presence of NaCl in dissolve state. HCO3- shows moderately positive correlations with Ca2+  and Na+ having the values of r as 0.427 and 0.367 respectively showing that the total alkalinity of different ground waters, is attributed to the presence of Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 mainly.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

On the basis of the above discussion based on various experimental data, the following conclusions are drawn:

(1)     Ground water (S-12) of Wangdei Meitei Leikai, Langol is fit for drinking purpose from physico-chemical analyses point of view.

(2)     Though ground waters (S-1 to S-11 and S-13) are fit for drinking in absence of alternate sources, some treatments are necessary so as to keep their total alkalinity values and concentration of Mg2+ in case of ground water S-2 within desirable limits of BIS standards for drinking water.

(3)     All these ground waters are suitable for other domestic and irrigation purposes.

(4)     Strong positive correlations exist between TDS and electrical conductivity (EC); between Na+ and Cl-. Further, moderately positive correlations of HCO3-  with Ca2+  and Na+ shows that total alkalinity of different ground waters, is due to presence of Ca(HCO3)2 and NaHCO3 mainly.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The author is thankful to Principal, D.M. College of Science, Imphal for some of the laboratory facilities provided for the research work and also thankful to those local people of different sampling sites, who had extended their co-operation.

 

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15.     Greenberg A E et al (eds). Standard Methods for  Examination of Water and Waste water, 18th Edition, APHA, AWWA and WEF, Washington, DC 200005, 1992.

16.     Wilcox L.V. Classification and uses of Irrigation Waters, USDA, Washington, D.C., 1955.

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18.     BIS IS 10500:1991 Indian Standard Drinking Water-Specification (First Revision) 8th reprint (Including Amendment No. 1 and 2), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2008.

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Received on 23.07.2015         Modified on 14.08.2015

Accepted on 22.08.2015         © AJRC All right reserved

Asian J. Research Chem. 8(8): August 2015; Page 545-549

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2015.00087.5