Physicochemical and Heavy Metal Analysis of Pond Water Quality of

Mau-Aima Vicinity, Allahabad (India)

 

Mohammad Rehan1, Dhirendra Kumar Bharati2, Sushmita Banerjee1,

Ravindra Kumar Gautam1*, Mahesh Chandra Chattopadhyaya1*

1Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India

2Department of Geography, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 India

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ravindragautam1987@gmail.com , mcchattopadhyaya@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Surface water is an important source of water which is commonly used for multiple uses such as in agriculture, drinking purposes, small scale industrial applications, and for household works. Due to rapid industrial growth, population explosion, and increased fertilizer application the surface and ground water have been continuously polluted. In the present study, monitoring and assessment of some physicochemical parameters of different pond water of Mauaima area (Allahabad district, India) has been carried out to decipher the pollution load in the fresh water ecosystem. Several physicochemical parameters such as turbidity, salinity, total hardness, TDS, DO, BOD, COD, and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) have been analyzed for water samples.

 

KEYWORDS: Water quality, Pond water, Agricultural runoff, Urban discharge, Fertilizer release.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Surface water is vital source for agriculture, drinking purposes, industrial activities, and for major hydrological operations as it is easily available throughout the globe. In India major portion of surface water is used for irrigation purposes in agricultural fields. Surface water is generally located in ponds, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, dams, and wetlands [1]. Due to rapid industrialization and urbanization coupled with increased population growth have tremendously damaged the aquatic environment [2-6]. The demands of production of increased food grains have challenging effect on agricultural community and to produce more food grains many agricultural farmers use chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and rodenticides [7]. Consequently the excess uses of fertilizers and pesticides splash away into the near aquatic bodies. Urban wastewater discharge by the sewer pipeline has direct effect on water ecosystem of natural ponds, lakes, wetlands, and rivers. Agricultural water discharge after the fertilizer application may contain recalcitrant organic pollutants and heavy metals [8,9].

 

Sewage wastewater may contain dyes, heavy metals, organic recalcitrant pollutants, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and harmful microbial organisms. Industrial wastewater discharge from paint industry, battery manufacturing, metallurgical processes, and plastic industry may contain toxic heavy metals.  

 

In the present study, monitoring and assessment of some physicochemical parameters of different pond water of Mauaima area (Allahabad district, India) has been carried out to decipher the pollution load in the fresh water ecosystem.

 

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS:

Study Area

Mau-aima is a block in the Allahabad district of Uttar Pradesh, India. The study area witnessed an exponential growth of population and the resultant anthropogenic pressures on water resources. Dense human population in the study area, urbanization, growth in small and medium industries, and various anthropogenic activities caused increased inflow of silt, untreated sewage, nutrients, heavy metals, and pesticides from urban and rural areas, thus adversely affecting both the water quality and quantity. Most of the population in the study area is involved in the agricultural activities which uses high grade fertilizers and brick kilns. The area is also a hub of small and medium scale firecracker industries producing huge amount of firecrackers during the festival sessions. 

 

Water sample collection

Different water samples (total 15) were collected from five pond of the Mau-aima area of Allahabad district (Uttar Pradesh, India). Water samples were collected in the March 2016 from the selected ponds 10 cm below the surface of water using the fresh plastic bottles. The collected samples were brought to the laboratory for physicochemical analysis. All the collected samples were preserved and analyzed as per Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater published by APHA, 21st edition [10]. On-site measurements of water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH were performed with the help of multi-parameter water analysis kit, respectively. Heavy metals analyses were performed on acid digested water samples with atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ECIL AAS 4141, Hyderabad, India). The digestion was carried out with nitric and perchloric acid mixture (3:1).

 

Fig. 1 Map of water sampling sites of Mau-aima area of Allahabad district.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Temperature of water

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each samples the temperature were determined with the help of water analysis kit. The temperature of water sample collected in the month of January and February falls in the range 23°C to 25°C it is increasing to know that salinity of water collected from Baniya pond Allipur Mau aima is highest , where as it is lowest in the water collected from central Eidgah pond azampur Mau aima. (Table-1)

 

pH

Water samples were collected from different areas and for each samples the pH content were determined with the help of water analysis kit. Examination of pH values of all the water samples reveals that all water samples are alkaline in nature. The pH value 8.93 of Baniya pond is highest, whereas the water collected from Eidgah pond has lowest pH value 7.40.  (Table-1)

 

Conductivity and total dissolved solid (T.D.S.)

Water samples were collected from different areas and for each samples the conductivity and T.D.S. were determined with the help of water analysis kit. There is variation in conductivity of water collected from five different places. Similarity there is a variation in the value of T.D.S in all the five samples. It is interesting to note that when the T.D.S is highest, the value of conductivity is also highest and similarly when T.D.S is lowest the conductivity is also lowest. In order to find a relationship between these two parameters, the correlation-coefficient was calculated using the following formula. Taking values xi and yi from table. The correlation coefficient obtained as 0.96, which show there is a perfect correlation between the T.D.S. and conductivity of sample solution. (Table-1)

 

Salinity of water

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each samples the salinity contents were determined with the help of water analysis kit. Perusal of data given in table reveals that in all the water sample salinity is quite low and varies from 0.60 to 0.92 ppt. (Table-1)

 

Turbidity of water

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each samples the turbidity contents were determined with the help of water analysis kit. Perusal of data given in table reveals that water sample collected from Eidgah pond has lowest (32 NTU) turbidity, whereas the water sample collected from Baniya pond has highest value (52.85 NTU) of turbidity. The turbidity value of three samples are varies in the range 38.11 to 47.51 NTU. (Table-1)

 

Chloride

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each samples the chloride contents were determined with the help of water analysis kit. There is large variation in the chloride ion content of water in five samples. In one hand the water collected from Alma pond has the lowest value of chloride ion content, which is 35.5 mg/L to highest value of chloride ion content in water sample content collected from Mustafabad pond this is 86.90 mg/L. (Table-1)


Table 1 Physico-chemical parameters of measured water samples from different pond water.

S.N.

Sampling Station

Temperature

( ˚C)

pH

Conductivity

(mS)

TDS

(mg/L)

Salinity

(ppt)

Turbidity

(NTU)

Chloride

(mg/L)

1.

Eidgah pond azampur

23

7.40

4.04

177

0.61

32

63.90

2.

Baniya pond Allipur

25

8.93

9.77

464

0.92

36.09

49.27

3.

Alma pond mau aima

23.5

8.80

4.28

247

0.90

52.85

80.90

4.

Mustafabad pond

23.9

7.45

5.94

326

0.74

40.01

86.90

5.

Shahfa pond mau aima

24.2

7.96

4.55

219

0.69

45.81

35.50

 

Table 2 Total hardness and total alkalinity of measured water samples.

S. No.

Sampling Station

Hardness (mg/L)

Calcium (mg/L)

Magnesium (mg/L)

Total alkalinity (mg/L)

1.

Eidgah pond Azampur

320

96

46.5

72.5

2.

Baniya pond

480

90

126

100

3.

Alma pond

392

48

124

124

4.

Mustafabad pond

240

66

45.5

180

5.

Shahfa pond Allipur

300

106

37

95

 

 

 


Total hardness

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each samples the hardness, calcium content and magnesium content were determined by EDTA titration, using the procedure given in below table. The total hardness of water collected from different places varies in the range 240 mg/L to 480 mg/L. The highest being in the water collected from Baniya pond and the lowest from Mustafabad pond, except for samples of Alma pond of and Eidgah pond the Mg content of water is more or less same, where as the value for samples of Alma pond and Eidgah pond is quite high. However, there is variation in calcium content in all the samples. The measured concentration of total alkalinity in water samples were in the range of 72.5 to 180 mg/L. The lowest total hardness of 72.5 mg/L was found in Eidgah pond water and highest concentration of 180 mg/L was observed for Mustafabad pond. (Table-2)

 

Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.) and Biological Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.)

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each sample the D.O. and B.O.D. contents were determined by Winkler’s Method using the procedure given below in the Table 3. The dissolved oxygen varies from 2.8 mg/L to 5.2 mg/L, whereas BOD varies from 1.2 mg/L to 2.7 mg/L. The lowest value of BOD indicates that water is free from organic pollutant. The water collected from Eidgah pond shows the lowest BOD value and they contain minimum amount of organic waste. Comparing the BOD value with COD value we find that in each water sample the value of BOD is much lower than the COD. Although the lowering of BOD value in comparison to COD value is expected, but in two cases i.e. for sample of Baniya pond and Shahfa pond, the COD value is exceptionally high. (Table-3)

 

Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D.)

Samples of water were collected from different areas and for each samples the C.O.D. contents were determined by reflux method. Table 3 shows the D.O., B.O.D. and C.O.D. values for the measured water samples. The lowest value for D.O. was found in Baniya pond water and highest was for Eidgah pond which is 2.8 and 5.2, respectively. The C.O.D. value is lowest for water samples collected from Eidgah pond, whereas highest (20.8 mg/L) for water sample collected from Baniya pond. It is interesting to note that the water samples collected from Alma pond not only has highest value for the chloride ion but also has highest value of C.O.D. Similarly the water collected from Eidgah pond has lowest chloride ion content and has lowest value of C.O.D. (Table-3)

 

Table 3 D.O., B.O.D. and C.O.D. analysis of measured water samples.

S. No.

Sampling station

D.O. (mg/L)

B.O.D. (mg/L)

C.O.D. (mg/L)

1.

Eidgah pond Azampur

5.2

1.2

6.8

2.

Baniya pond

2.8

2.7

20.8

3.

Alma pond

4.8

2.5

7.5

4.

Mustafabad pond

3.2

1.4

16

5.

Shahfa pond

4.5

1.5

20

 

Metal ions

Metal ions contamination in pond water is mainly due to the minerals weathering, sewage discharge, agricultural fertilizers, and from wastewater effluent [11]. Some heavy metal ions viz., zinc and copper are extremely essential to human life but if present in large quantities may cause physiological disorder. Cadmium, chromium, and lead are highly toxic in trace concentration. The average heavy metals concentrations in pond water were found to be exceeding the permissible limits as mentioned by Central Pollution Control Board. Table 4 shows the average metal ions concentration in different pond water. The main sources of contamination include soil weathering, municipal wastewater, urban runoff and industrial wastewaters, particularly from the electroplating, electronic and metal-finishing industries. Many aquatic environments face metal concentrations that exceed water quality criteria designed to protect the environment, animals and humans. The problems are exacerbated because metals have a tendency to be transported with sediments, are persistent in the environment and can bioaccumulate in the food chain. (Table-4)

 

Table 4 Average metal ions concentration in different pond water.

S.N.

Sampling site

Metal ions (mg/L)

Cd

Cu 

Pb 

Cr

Zn 

1.

Eidgah pond Azampur

0.45

0.87

0.50

1.48

1.34

2.

Baniya pond Allipur

0.76

1.05

0.67

1.54

1.78

3.

Alma pond  Mau aima

0.63

0.66

0.43

0.77

2.37

4.

Mustafabad pond

0.57

0.82

1.12

0.98

2.66

5.

Shahfa pond

0.70

1.10

0.97

1.74

1.84

 

CONCLUSIONS:

The measurement of water samples collected from different places shows that the water quality of Eidgah pond and Azampur Mau-aima is better in quality from the point of view of small value of T.D.S., turbidity and conductivity. Further the magnesium content of water is also very good, D.O. is highest and C.O.D. is also low. The water sample obtained from Baniya pond showed the highest value of Turbidity. It has highest value of magnesium ion but D.O. is quite low, and salinity is highest of this water. The T.D.S. is also very high for Baniya pond water. Heavy metal analysis showed that the water quality is not suitable for drinking and household purposes due to high level of metal ions. The concentration of metal ions such as Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn were higher as prescribed for drinking and household activities. Considering all these factors it is concluded that water sample collected from Eidgah pond Azampur Mau aima is much better in quality and the water collected from Baniya pond is poor in quality. The result of this study suggests that there is urgent need to check the discharge of untreated wastewater from house hold and agricultural runoff to near water bodies.

 

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Received on 06.12.2016         Modified on 23.12.2016

Accepted on 30.12.2016         © AJRC All right reserved

Asian J. Research Chem. 2017; 10(1):29-32.

DOI:  10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00005.0