Nutrients Uptake of Top Vegetables Irrigated By Distillery Spentwash in Normal and Spentwash Treated Soil

 

S. Chandraju1* and C.S. Chidan Kumar2

1Dept. of Studies in Sugar Technology, Sir M.Vishweshwaraya Post-graduate Center, University of Mysore, Tubinakere, Mandya -571402, Karnataka, India.

2Dept. of Chemistry, Bharathi College, Bharathi Nagar-571422, Karnataka, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: chandraju1@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Cultivation of some top vegetables was made by irrigation with distillery spentwash of different proportions. The spent wash i.e., primary treated spentwash (PTSW) and 33% spent wash were analyzed for their plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and other physical and chemical parameters. Experimental soils i.e, untreated (plot-1) and spentwash treated (plot-2) soils were tested for their chemical and physical parameters. The top vegetables seeds (Namadhari and Mayhco) were sowed in the prepared land and irrigated with raw water (RW) and 33% spentwash. Influence of spentwash in untreated and spentwash treated soils on proximate principles (moisture, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrate, energy, calcium, phosphorous, and iron), Vitamin content (carotene and vitamin-c), minerals and trace elements (magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, manganese, zinc, chromium and nickel) of top vegetables were investigated at their respective maturity. It was found that the nutrients of all top vegetables were high in 33%SW than raw water irrigation. Further, the nutritive values were very high in spentwash treated soil (plot-2) 33% irrigation than untreated (plot-1) and raw water irrigations.

 

KEYWORDS: Distillery spentwash, Top vegetables, Nutrients, Distillery Spentwash.


 

INTRODUCTION:

Molasses (one of the important byproducts of sugar industry) is the chief source for the production of ethanol in distilleries by fermentation method. About eight (08) liters of waste water is discharged for every lifer of ethanol production in distilleries, known as raw spentwash (RSW), which is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD: 5000-8000mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand (COD: 25000-30000mg/L)1, undesirable color and foul smell. Discharge of raw spentwash into open land or nearby water bodies resulting in a number of environmental, water and soil pollution including threat to plant and animal lives. Hence, discharge of spentwash is a major problem. The RSW is highly acidic and contains easily oxidizable organic matter with very high BOD and COD2. Also, spentwash contains highest content of organic nitrogen and nutrients3. By installing biomethenation plant in distilleries, reduces the oxygen demand of RSW, the resulting spent wash is called primary treated spentwash (PTSW) and primary treatment to RSW increases the nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorous (P) contents and decreases the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl-), and sulphate (SO42-)4.

 

The PTSW is rich in potassium (K), sulphur (S), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) as well as easily biodegradable organic matter and its application to soil has been reported to be beneficial to increase Sugar cane5, Rice6, Wheat and Rice yield7, quality of Groundnut8 and physiological response of Soybean9. Diluted spentwash could be used for irrigation purpose without adversely affecting soil fertility10,11,12, seed germination and crop productivity13. The diluted spentwash irrigation improved the physical and chemical properties of the soil and further increased soil microflora14,9,10. Twelve pre sowing irrigations with the diluted spentwash had no adverse effect on the germination of maize but improved the growth and yield15. Diluted spentwash increases the growth of shoot length, leaf number per plant, leaf area and chlorophyll content of peas16. Increased concentration of spentwash causes decreased seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyll content in Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) and the spentwash could safely used for irrigation purpose at lower concentration17,12. The spentwash contained an excess of various forms of cations and anions, which are injurious to plant growth and these constituents should be reduced to beneficial level by diluting the spentwash, which can be used as a substitute for chemical fertilizer18. The spentwash could be used as a complement to mineral fertilizer to sugarcane19. The spentwash contained N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and thus valued as a fertilizer when applied to soil through irrigation with water20. The application of diluted spent wash increased the uptake of Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in Maize and Wheat as compared to control and the highest total uptake of these were found at lower dilution levels than at higher dilution levels21. Mineralization of organic material as well as nutrients present in the spentwash was responsible for increased availability of plant nutrients. Diluted spentwash increase the uptake of nutrients, height, growth and yield of Leaves vegetables22,23, nutrients of Cabbage and Mint leaf24, nutrients of Top vegetable25, Pulses, Condiments and Root vegetables26, nutrients of pulses in untreated and treated soil27. However, not much information is available on the influence of distillery spent wash on the nutrients of Top vegetables in untreated and spentwash treated soil. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to investigate the influence of different concentration of spentwash on the nutrients of Top vegetables in untreated and spentwash treated soils.

 

Table 1.  Chemical composition of distillery spentwash

Chemical parameters

PTSW

33% PTSW

pH

7.65

7.75

Electrical conductivitya

28800

10020

Total solidsb

46140

20870

Total dissolved solidsb

35160

10140

Total suspended solidsb

10540

4380

Settleable solidsb

10070

3010

CODb

40530

10228

BODb

16200

4800

Carbonateb

Nil

Nil

Bicarbonateb

13100

4200

Total Phosphorousb

30.26

6.79

Total Potassiumb

7200

2400

Calciumb

940

380.0

Magnesiumb

1652.16

542.22

Sulphurb

74.8

22.6

Sodiumb

480

240

Chloridesb

5964

3164

Ironb

9.2

5.20

Manganeseb

1424

368

Zincb

1.28

0.41

Copperb

0.276

0.074

Cadmiumb

0.039

0.010

Leadb

0.16

0.06

Chromiumb

0.066

0.014

Nickelb

0.165

0.040

Ammonical Nitrogenb

743.68

276.64

PTSW - Primary treated spentwash

Units: a- µS: b- mg/L

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Physico-chemical parameters and amount of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), phosphorous (P) and sulphur (S) present in the primary treated spentwash  and 33% spentwash were analyzed by standard methods (Tables - 1 and 2). The PTSW was used for irrigation with a dilution of 33% in plot-1 and plot-2. Before initiation, plot-2 soil was treated with diluted spentwash for four times with an interval of one week, each time land was ploughed and exposed to sunlight. A composite soil samples from both plots were collected at 25 cm depth, air-dried, powdered and analyzed for physico-chemical properties (Table-3).

Table 2. Amount of N, P, K and S in distillery Spentwash

Chemical parameters

PTSW

33% PTSW

Ammonical Nitrogena

743.68

276.64

Total Phosphorousa

30.26

6.79

Total Potassiuma

7200

2400

Sulphura

74.8

22.6

PTSW- Primary treated spentwash

Units: a- µS: b- mg/L

 

Table 3. Characteristics of experimental soils

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

Coarse sanda

9.72

10.94

Fine sanda

40.80

42.86

Slita

25.28

26.32

Claya

24.2

19.88

pH (1:2 soln) a

8.16

8.15

Organic carbona

526

451

Electrical conductivitybb

0.61

0.93

Available Nitrogenc

340

460

Available Phosphorousc

130

180

Available Potassiumc

80

95

Exchangeable Calciumc

140

150

Exchangeable Magnesiumc

220

190

Exchangeable Sodiumc

90

180

Available Sulphurc

240

230

DTPA  Ironc

200

240

DTPA  Manganesec

220

260

DTPA Copperc

5.0

8.0

DTPA Zincc

50

65

Plot-1: Untreated Soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated Soil

Units: a- %; b- µS; c-ppm

 

The top vegetables selected for present investigation were Brinzal (Solanum melongena), Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea, var, botrytis), Cluster beans (Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Giant chillies (Capsicum annum var. grossa), Knol-Khol (Brassica oleracea, var. caulorapa) and Ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculents). The seeds were sowed and irrigated with raw water (RW) and 33% spentwash in both plots at the dosage of twice a week and rest of the period with raw water. At the maturity time, vegetables were harvested and proximate principles, vitamins, minerals and trace elements were analyzed (Tables: 4 - 10).

 

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Chemical composition of PTSW and 33% spentwash such as pH, electrical conductivity, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), settelable solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), carbonates, bicarbonates, total phosphorous (P), total potassium (K), ammonical nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S), sodium (Na), chlorides (Cl), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) were analyzed and tabulated (Table-1). Amount of N, P, K and S contents are presented in Table-2.

 

Table 4.Nutritive values of Brinzal (Solanum melongena) in plot-1 and2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33%PTSW

Moisturea

93.0

93.0

93.2

93.5

Fata

0.28

0.32

0.4

0.48

Acid insoluble Asha

0.02

0.03

0.03

0.03

Proteina

1.4

1.6

1.4

1.9

Fibrea

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.8

Carbohydratea

3.9

4.0

4.6

5.2

Energyb

24.0

25.0

25.6

26.4

Calciumc

17.9

18.0

18.4

19.6

Magnesiumc

15.1

15.2

15.8

16.2

Sodiumc

20.2

20.9, 20.95

20.9

30.1

Potassiumc

198.0

205.0

200.4

210.4

Ironc

0.38

0.38

0.42

0.48

Phosphorousc

47.0

48.0

48.5

49.6

Zincc

0.21

0.22

0.39

0.42

Manganesec

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.15

Copperc

0.11

0.14

0.23

0.34

Chloridesc

53.0

55.1

54.4

55.8

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Chromiumc

0.006

0.007

0.0065

0.0073

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Sulfurc

45.0

46.0

45.5

46.6

Carotened

73.8

75.0

74.2

75.8

Vitamin Cc

12.2

13.0

12.8

13.9

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water, PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash, Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

 

 

Table 5.Nutritive values of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea, var, botrytis) in plot-1 and2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33%PTSW

Moisturea

91.2

91.8

91.9

92.0

Fata

0.39

0.5

0.5

0.6

Acid insoluble Asha

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.02

Proteina

2.6

2.8

2.7

2.85

Fibrea

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.4

Carbohydratea

3.8

4.1

4.0

4.3

Energyb

30.0

32.0

31.5

33.1

Calciumc

32.9

35.0

34.0

37.0

Magnesiumc

18.0

20.0

21.0

24.0

Sodiumc

60.0

65.0

63.0

65.2

Potassiumc

138.0

140.0

141.0

145.0

Ironc

1.19

1.3

1.25

1.35

Phosphorousc

57.0

60.0

59.0

65.0

Zincc

0.40

0.42

0.41

0.45

Manganesec

0.09

0.1

0.1

0.11

Copperc

0.14

0.15

0.15

0.16

Chloridesc

35.0

37.0

36.0

37.2

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Chromiumc

0.003

0.004

0.004

0.004

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Sulfurc

232.0

240.0

238.0

245.0

Carotened

31.0

35.0

34.0

38.0

Vitamin Cc

50.0

58.0

57.0

60.0

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water, PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash, Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

Table 6.Nutritive values of Cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in plot-1 and2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33%PTSW

 

Moisturea

83.0

84.0

84.0

84.0

 

Fata

0.38

0.42

0.40

0.43

 

Acid insoluble Asha

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

 

Proteina

3.2

3.6

3.5

3.6

 

Fibrea

3.6

3.8

3.87

3.85

 

Carbohydratea

10.8

11.0

11.0

11.5

 

Energyb

16.2

17.4

17.2

17.5

 

Calciumc

129.18

131.0

133.0

136.0

 

Magnesiumc

47.0

48.4

48.2

49.0

 

Sodiumc

10.0

12.0

11.5

12.0

 

Potassiumc

8.0

10.0

9.5

14.0

 

Ironc

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.5

 

Phosphorousc

56.5

58.0

57.0

60.4

 

Zincc

0.38

0.40

0.40

0.42

 

Manganesec

0.1

0.3

0.25

0.4

 

Copperc

0.07

0.08

0.08

0.10

 

Chloridesc

4.0

5.0

4.5

5.0

 

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

Chromiumc

0.004

0.005

0.005

0.005

 

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

 

Sulfurc

8.0

10.0

9.5

14.0

 

Carotened

197.0

200.0

220.0

250.0

 

Vitamin Cc

49.8

50.0

50.0

50.2

 

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water, PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash, Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

 

Table 7. Nutritive values of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in plot-1 and 2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33%PTSW

Moisturea

96.9

96.8

96.8

97.0

Fata

0.09

0.1

0.1

0.15

Acid insoluble Asha

0.11

0.10

0.10

0.10

Proteina

0.40

0.41

0.41

0.48

Fibrea

0.39

0.40

0.42

0.48

Carbohydratea

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.8

Energyb

13.0

14.2

15.2

16.4

Calciumc

10.0

10.4

10.6

10.8

Magnesiumc

16.0

16.9

17.0

18.0

Sodiumc

10.0

10.8

11.0

12.0

Potassiumc

52.0

54.0

55.0

56.0

Ironc

0.39

0.62

0.52

0.64

Phosphorousc

25.2

26.0

27.0

28.2

Zincc

0.20

0.46

0.49

0.58

Manganesec

0.15

0.159

0.16

0.165

Copperc

0.09

0.1

0.1

0.1

Chloridesc

14.9

15.0

15.0

15.0

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Chromiumc

0.002

0.003

0.003

0.003

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Sulfurc

17.0

17.2

17.6

17.9

Carotened

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Vitamin Cc

6.8

7.2

7.4

7.8

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water, PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash, Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

Table 8.Nutritive values of Giant chillies (Capsicum annum var. grossa) in plot-1 and2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33% PTSW

Moisturea

93.0

93.5

93.5

93.5

Fata

0.3

0.35

0.37

0.39

Acid insoluble Asha

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

Proteina

1.25

1.3

1.3

1.6

Fibrea

1.1

1.3

1.2

1.4

Carbohydratea

4.25

4.41

4.30

4.42

Energyb

23.9

25.2

24.2

26.3

Calciumc

9.8

10.3

10.1

10.4

Magnesiumc

12.2

12.5

12.3

12.6

Sodiumc

2.0

2.0

2.2

2.4

Potassiumc

1.0

1.2

1.3

1.6

Ironc

0.49

0.6

0.55

0.62

Phosphorousc

30.0

32.0

31.0

35.0

Zincc

0.12

0.14

0.13

0.15

Manganesec

0.06

0.07

0.07

0.07

Copperc

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.14

Chloridesc

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Chromiumc

0.005

0.006

0.006

0.006

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Sulfurc

1.0

2.0

2.0

2.0

Carotened

428.0

432.0

438.0

444.0

Vitamin Cc

136.8

137.2

139.2

142.1

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water,

PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash,

Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

 

 

Table 9.Nutritive values of Knol-Khol (Brassica oleracea, var. caulorapa) in plot-1and2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33%PTSW

Moisturea

92.8

93.0

93.0

92.9

Fata

0.20

0.23

0.22

0.24

Acid insoluble Asha

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Proteina

0.9

1.1

1.2

1.28

Fibrea

1.48

1.52

1.50

1.53

Carbohydratea

3.78

3.82

3.9

4.1

Energyb

20.9

21.2

21.0

23.4

Calciumc

19.2

20.0

20.0

22.0

Magnesiumc

33.0

35.0

34.0

36.0

Sodiumc

112.4

113.0

113.0

115.2

Potassiumc

35.0

38.0

39.0

44.2

Ironc

1.5

1.6

1.6

1.61

Phosphorousc

35.2

35.8

35.4

36.9

Zincc

0.25

0.28

0.27

0.28

Manganesec

0.09

0.12

0.12

0.12

Copperc

0.53

0.06

0.06

0.06

Chloridesc

66.6

68.0

67.0

70.2

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Chromiumc

0.009

0.018

0.018

0.019

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Sulfurc

142.5

144.0

145.0

154.1

Carotened

20.8

24.0

24.0

25.0

Vitamin Cc

83.9

86.2

87.2

89.9

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water

PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash

Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

 

Table 10. Nutritive values of Ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculents) in plot-1 and2

Parameters

Plot-1

Plot-2

 

RW

33%PTSW

RW

33% PTSW

Fata

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.36

Acid insoluble Asha

0.13

0.14

0.14

0.14

Proteina

1.85

1.92

1.96

2.0

Fibrea

1.1

1.25

1.25

1.3

Carbohydratea

6.5

6.6

6.8

7.42

Energyb

35.4

36.4

37.4

38.4

Calciumc

65.7

66.2

66.2

68.6

Magnesiumc

52.0

53.4

54.4

58.4

Sodiumc

6.9

7.1

7.1

7.6

Potassiumc

110

115

119

120

Ironc

0.32

0.36

0.46

0.62

Phosphorousc

56.0

56.5

57.5

58.0

Zincc

0.40

0.44

0.44

0.45

Manganesec

0.16

0.17

0.19

1.20

Copperc

0.10

0.13

0.13

0.14

Chloridesc

40.0

42.1

42.8

42.9

Leadc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Cadmiumc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Chromiumc

0.005

0.006

0.006

0.006

Nickelc

Nil

Nil

Nil

Nil

Sulfurc

40.0

41.2

41.8

42.0

Carotened

58.0

61.9

62.9

64.0

Vitamin Cc

13.0

13.2

13.8

14.1

a-g; b-k cal; c-mg; d-µg; RW-Raw water

PTSW-Primary treated Spentwash

Plot-1: Untreated soil; Plot-2: Spentwash treated soil

 

Characteristics of experimental soils such as pH, electrical conductivity, the amount of organic carbon, available nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), sulphur (S) exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), DTPA iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were analyzed(Manivasakam, 1987:Subbaiah and Asija, 1956: Piper, 1966: Walkeley and Black,1934: Jackson, 1973: Black, 1965: Lindsay and Norvel, 1978) and tabulated (Table-3).

 

Uptakes of all the parameters were very good in 33% spentwash as compared to raw water in both fields (plots1 and 2) for all top vegetables. However considerable uptake of the nutrients very high in plot-2 than plot-1 in all types of irrigations and there was no negative impact of spentwash on the nutrients. Cultivation of vegetables was repeated for three times in each case, all parameters were determined and average values were recorded (Tables: 4-10).

 

CONCLUSION:

It was noticed that the nutrients uptake in all the varieties was largely influenced in case of 33% diluted spentwash irrigation than with raw water in spentwash treated than untreated soil. This concludes that, the treated soil is enriched with the plant nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. It further concludes that, the subsequent use of diluted spent wash for irrigation enriches the soil fertility and hence the diluted spentwash (33%) is effective eco-friendly irrigation medium for cultivation of top vegetables without any adverse effect.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are thankful to The Management of Chamundi Distilleries Pvt. Ltd., Maliyur, T.N.Pur Tq, Mysore Dt, India, for providing the facilities.

 

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Received on 22.07.2010        Modified on 02.08.2010

Accepted on 11.08.2010        © AJRC All right reserved

Asian J. Research Chem. 4(1):  January 2011; Page 75-79