Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, Pharmacognostical, and Clinical significance of Andrographis paniculata (King of bitters): An Overview

 

Arjun Singh*

Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College,

Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: arjunphar@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Traditional medicine is a set of knowledge, abilities, and procedures based on assumptions, beliefs, and experiences of traditional societies to preserve their health. Many rural or indigenous people in many undeveloped nations place a high importance on traditional herbal remedies. Andrographis paniculata Wall (family Acanthaceae) is a common medicinal plant that has been used for millennia in Asia, America, and Africa to treat a variety of maladies including cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, ulcer, leprosy, bronchitis, skin diseases, flatulence, colic, influenza, dysentery, dyspepsia, and malaria. It contains several photochemical compounds that have distinct and intriguing biological effects. To bridge the gap for future research prospects, this study discusses the past and present state of research on Andrographis paniculata in terms of medicinal usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicity profile, and therapeutic usage. This assessment is based on a review of the literature in scientific journals and books obtained from libraries and electronic sources. Natural therapeutic properties are just one benefit of medicinal plants; they also provide disease prevention. In this concise overview study research, we are trying to summarize, aggregate the number of plants, and identify their ethnopharmacological properties.

 

KEYWORDS: Traditional medicine, Andrographis paniculata, ethnopharmacological, phytochemicals, Medicinal plants.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

About two thirds of the population in many poor nations, according to estimates, significantly rely on traditional healers and medicinal plants to provide for their basic healthcare needs1-4. Researchers are now revaluating many plant species based on variety in plant species and their medicinal chemical principles as a result of the various issues with traditional medications. In order to update the present level of knowledge, it is crucial to do a thorough literature search on a few species. Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), a plant species utilized in traditional eastern and ayurvedic medicine, is one of these species.

 

 

 

There are roughly 40 species in the genus Andrographis, which is part of the Acanthaceae family5-9. Various chemicals have been identified from the plant, including diterpenes, flavonoids, xanthones, noriridoides, and other random substances. There have been reports of the plant's anti-microbial, cytotoxic, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone/sexual function modulation, liver enzymes modulation, insecticidal, and toxicological actions in extract and pure chemicals. Numerous tests to determine the toxicity of extracts and metabolites extracted from this plant did not uncover any appreciable acute toxicity in test animals10-14. Future research must include a more thorough and detailed toxicity profile on mammalian tissues and organs.

 

Different chemicals can be found in A. paniculata's aerial parts and roots, and these are frequently employed to draw out the plant's active ingredients. Its chemical content can vary depending on a number of parameters, including geographic location, harvest season, and processing technique. Numerous plant metabolites have been discovered thanks to phytochemical research on A. paniculata. The terpenoids (entalabdane diterpene lactones), which make up a significant fraction of these metabolites and are responsible for their therapeutic efficacy, stand out among them. Flavonoids (also known as flavones), noriridoides, xanthones, polyphenols, and trace and macro elements are other groups of chemicals that have also been identified15-18.

 

METHODS:

Materials:

A library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journal articles, as well as electronic database searches using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, were used to gather the information on various plants that have historically been used for pharmacological, ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and the treatment of disorders.

 

Andrographis paniculata (burm. F.) Wall. Ex nees.)

It is belonging to the family of Asteraceae and Genus Cynara. It has various pharmacological activities abortifacient, adaptogen, adrenocortical stimulant, alterative, analgesic, anthelmintic, antiaggregant, antiandrogenic, antiatherosclerotic, antibacterial, anti-HIV, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antiischemic, antileukemic, antioxidant, antipyretic, antiradicular, antiseptic,  antiserotonin, antispermatogenic, antityphoid, antiulcer, bitter cholagogue, choleretic, contraceptive, depurative, fibrinolytic, fungicide, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, immunostimulant, phagocytotic, stomachic, tonic16-20. Scientists studied the pharmacological characteristics of the A. paniculata plant to validate its use as a medicinal agent in the treatment of various illnesses as a result of the widespread usage of its various sections in folk medicine, particularly in Asia. Studies have revealed that this plant has a wide range of biological properties, including anti-microbial, cytotoxic, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-diabetic, anti-infective, anti-angiogenic, hepato-renal protective, sex hormone modulatory, liver enzymes modulatory, insecticidal, and poisonous properties21-24.

 

Plant parts used from Andrographis paniculata25-28

Part

Medicinal uses

Whole Plant

Snakebite and insect sting treatment, dyspepsia, influenza, dysentery, malaria and respiratory infections.

Leaf

Fever, colic pain, loss of appetite, irregular stools and diarrhoea, common cold, cough, fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, mouth ulcers, bronchitis gastro-intestinal disorder and sores.

Aerial part

Common cold, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, malaria and snakebite, urinary tract infection.

Root

Febrifuge, tonic, stomachic and anthelmintic.

 

Different terpenes compounds of Andrographis paniculata29-34

Compound

Type

Plant part

Andrographolide

Diterpenoid lactone

Leaves/ aerial

Neoandrographolide

14-deoxyandrographolide

Aerial parts

Andrographoside

Diterpene

Leaves/aerial parts

14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide

Diterpenoid lactone

Aerial parts

19-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ent-labda-8(17), 13-dien-15, 16, 19-triol

Ent-labdane diterpenoid lactone

8α-methoxy-14-deoxy-17β- hydroxyandrographolide

Andrographolactone

Diterpenoid lactone

3, 13, 14, 19-tetrahydroxy- ent-labda-8(17), 11-dien-16, 15 olide and 3, 19 isopropylidene- 14-deoxy- ent-labda-8(17), 13-diene-16, 15-olide

14-deoxy-15-isopropylidene-11,12-didehydroandrographolide

Unusual Terpenoid

Aerial parts/roots

3,7,19-trihydroxyl-8,11, 13- ent-labdatriene-15, 16-olide and 8α,17β-epoxy-3, 19-dihydroxy-11,13-ent-labdatrien-15, 16-olide

Diterpene lactone

Aerial parts

Andrograpanin

Diterpene

Leaves

 

Flavonoids of Andrographis paniculata35-44

Compound

Type

Plant part

5, 7, 2′, 3′-tetramethoxyflavone

Flavonone

Whole plant

5-hydroxy-7, 2′, 3′-trimethoxy flavones

Flavone

5-hydroxy-7, 2′, 6′trimethoxyflavone

Root

7-O-methyldihydrowogonin

Root/aerial part

7-O-methylwogonin

Root/aerial part/whole plant

Flavone-1, 2′methylether

7-O-methylwogonin-5-glucoside

Flavones

Root/aerial parts

Flavone-1, 2′-O-glucoside

Flavonoids

Root /aerial part/whole plant

5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2′, 5′-tetramethoxyflavone

Whole plant

Dihydroskullcapflavone

Flavone

5-hydroxy-7, 8, 2, 3′ tetramethoxyflavone

 

Miscellaneous compounds of Andrographis paniculata45-58

Compound

Type

Plant part

Arabinogalactan

Protein

Herbs

1, 8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-xanthone

Xanthone

Root

4,8-dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-xanthone

1,2-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthone

3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy-xanthone

Andrographidoid A, Andrographidoid B, Andrographidoid C, Andrographidoid D

Andrographidoid E

Noriridoid

Root

 

DISCUSSION:

The traditional medicine of India, China, and Southeast Asia has made substantial use of A. paniculata. The majority of the plant's healing abilities are found in its aerial parts, which are used to treat stomachaches, fever, sore throats, painful muscles, insect stings, and snake bites. Diterpenoid lactones, which are this species' main phytochemical ingredients, as well as flavonoids have been identified through phytochemical research from its aerial portions59. The roots have been used to separate a variety of chemicals, including xanthones, uncommon noriridoids, and trace and macro elements. It has been demonstrated that various formulations, extracts, and pure chemicals made from this plant have biological properties such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, cytotoxicity, immunological modulatory, sex hormone modulatory, liver enzyme modulatory, anti-malaria, anti-angiogenic, and hepato-renal protective activity. Pure chemicals produced from this plant with the most intriguing biological effects are diterpenoid lactones, which include the bitter andrographolide60-61.

 

CONCLUSION:

The phytochemistry, therapeutic applications, and pharmacology of A. paniculata have all been thoroughly explored in this review. However, more research on the phytochemistry and the mechanisms of action of isolated substances is required to completely comprehend the phytochemical profile and the intricate pharmacological effects of this plant. To further ensure this plant's safety and suitability as a source of modern medicine, clinical and laboratory investigations on the toxicity of all plant part extracts as well as other pure phytochemicals obtained from it are crucial.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

The author has no conflicts of interest.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The author would like to thank NCBI, PubMed and Web of Science for the free database services for their kind support during this study.

 

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25.   Mishra, D., Jyotshna, Singh, A., Chanda, D., Shanker, K., Khare, P. Potential of di-aldehyde cellulose for sustained release of oxytetracycline: A pharmacokinetic study. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019; 136: 97–105. 

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Received on 05.12.2022                    Modified on 21.06.2023

Accepted on 26.09.2023                   ©AJRC All right reserved

Asian J. Research Chem. 2024; 17(1):55-58.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-4150.2024.00011