Metals and minerals are integral parts of Indian Systems of Medicine including Unani Medicine. Usrub (lead) is one of the seven metals of antiquity used in prehistoric times. The medicinal use of lead preparation is reported in pre-Dynastic Egypt and by the ancient Indian civilisations from 3200 to 2800 BC. Lead in various forms i.e. Usrub (lead) and Aabar (burnt lead/ashes of lead), Isfidaj (white lead), Suranj (red oxide of lead), Murdar sang (litharge/lead monoxide) and Ithmid (lead sulfide) are used in Unani Medicine. Usrub (Lead) naturally occurs as galena (lead sulfide) from which it is obtained by roasting. The compounds of lead for medicinal uses are generally prepared by a particular method. Most of the lead compounds are used as external applications for the healing of wounds. For oral use, calx form is recommended. The lead is absorbed into the human body from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. It is least absorbed through intact skin. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of absorbed lead is excreted through urine, feces and sweat. When blood level in adults crosses the limit of 10 µg/dl and in children 3.5 µg/dl the signs of poisoning may appear. The present review will be helpful for students, researcher for a better understanding of lead’s medicinal use and for further studies.
Cite this article:
Mustehasan, Misbahuddin Azhar. Usrub (lead) and its compounds used in Unani Medicine: Overview. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(5):358-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00064
Mustehasan, Misbahuddin Azhar. Usrub (lead) and its compounds used in Unani Medicine: Overview. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(5):358-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00064 Available on: https://ajrconline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-5-10
1. Singer C, Holmyard EJ, Hall AR and Williams TI, A History of Technology Vol-III Oxford University Press. 1957.
2. Nriagu, J. Lead and Lead Poisoning in Antiquity. John Wiley and Sons New York. 1983.
3. McNeil, J.R. and Reinhard, M.C. Lead poisoning from home remedies. Clinical Pediatrics, 1967; (6): 150-156.
4. Al Kuhhal ABI, Tazkira-tul-Kuhhaleen Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine publications New Delhi. 2009; 249-250.
5. Dioscorides P, Dioscorides De Materia Medica (The Herbal of Dioscorides The Greek) IBIDIS Press cc PO Box 81169 Parkhurst Johannesburg South Africa 2120. 2000; 790-796.
6. Ibn-Sina. Canon of Medicine (English translation). Dept. of Islamic Studies Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi. 1998; 44,49,57,226, 257.
7. Ibn Baiytar ZU, Kitab-al-Jami-ul-Mufradat-al Adviawal Aghzia, Vol-I, (urdu translation), CCRUM Publication, New Delhi, 1985; 22,23,68-72.
8. Ibn Baiytar ZU, Kitab-al-Jami-ul-Mufradat-al Adviawal Aghzia, Vol-II, (urdu translation), CCRUM Publication, New Delhi, 1986; 292-295.
9. Ibn Baiytar ZU, Kitab-al-Jami-ul-Mufradat-al Adviawal Aghzia, Vol-IV, (urdu translation), CCRUM Publication, New Delhi, 2003; 328-332.
10. Greninger, D., V. Kollonitsch, and C.H. Kline (Charles H. Kline & Co., Inc.). Lead Chemicals. New York, New York: International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc. (ILZRO). 1975.
11. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica, 3rdedn. Vol-II, Popular Prakashan Private Limited, Mumbai. 1976; 83-88.
12. Rafiquddin M. Kanzul Advia Mufrada, University publication unit, Sarfaraz House, AMU Aligarh, 1985;411,412, 415,442.
13. Singh D, Unani Dravyaguna Vigyan, Nirnay Sagar press Mumbai, 1949; 470,471,474,477,478,497.
14. Lubhaya R. Bayan ul Advia, Vol-I, Idara Matbul Sulemani Lahore, 2001; 100,101,290,314,315.
15. Tariq NA. Taj-ul-Mufradat (Khawas-ul-Advia), Idara Kitaab-ul-Shifa, New Delhi, 2004; 433,434,476.
16. Khan MA, Muheet-e-Azam, Vol-I, CCRUM Publication New Delhi, 2012; 167,168,304,305.
17. Khan MA, Muheet-e-Azam, Vol-III, CCRUM Publication New Delhi, 2014; 77-79, 101-103,244, 254,255.
18. Khan MA, Muheet-e-Azam, Vol-IV, CCRUM Publication New Delhi. 2018; 570-572.
19. Ghani N. Khazain-ul-Advia, Vol- IV, CCRUM Publication New Delhi. 2010; 352,353, 523-526,539,540.
20. Ghani N. Khazain-ul-Advia, Vol- VI, CCRUM Publication New Delhi. 2010; 263-265.
21. Kabiruddin M. Makhzan-ul-Mufradat al Maroof Khawasul Advia National Fine Printing Press, Hyderabad, 1955; 74, 343, 344, 346, 347, 374, 375, 540, 541.
22. Nabi G. Makhzan-ul-Mufradat wa Murakkabat Maroof Khawasul Advia, CCRUM Publication New Delhi, Second edition. 2007; 145, 155, 174, 244.
23. Baghdadi IH, Kitab Al-Mukhtarat Fit -Tibb (Urdu translation) 1st edition. Vol. II. CCRUM publication New Delhi, 2005; 60, 67, 190, 213.
24. Ali SS. Unani Advia Mufrada Taraqqi Urdu Bureau, New Delhi 6th edition, 1993; 306,315,316.
25. focus.cdr (metalworld.co.in) accessed on 19.10.2021
26. Kabiruddin M. Kitab al Taklees Maroof ba Ilm Kushtajat CCRUM publication New Delhi, YNM; 128.
27. Robert RG. Archaeomineralogy. springer.com, 2009; 213-215.
28. Bostock, J, The Natural History, Pliny the Elder, Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden London. 1855; 6 (34): 50-54.
29. Hakeem MA, Bustan-ul-Mufradat, Aijaz Publishing House Delhi. 2011; 197.
30. James Balfour Paul, Accounts of the Treasurer of Scotland, Edinburgh. 1900; (2) p. 277.
31. Robert L. Feller, Artists´ Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics National Gallery of Art, Washington. 2012; (1) p 109.
32. Paikrao, H. M., and V. A. Shende. "Investigation of adulteration in kumkum." Materials Today: Proceedings 29. 2020; 801-806.
33. Anonymous, National Formulary of Unani Medicine part-II (Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.2007; 49,50,52,57,59,60,61,135.
34. Anonymous, “National Formulary of Unani Medicine”, part-IV, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. 2006; 104,119.
35. Anonymous, National Formulary of Unani Medicine part-V Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. 2008; 11, 116, 117.
36. Anonymous, National Formulary of Unani Medicine part-VI Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. 2011; 89,104.
37. Ferozuddin, M. Madan al Akseer dar Ilm kushtajat 2nd ed. CCRUM publication New Delhi, 2007; 97,98.
38. Vohra SB, ‘Encyclopedia of Medical Elementology’ New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, New Delhi. 2007; 115-126.
39. https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/advisory/acclpp/actions-blls.htm accessed on 02.02.2022.
40. Pathophysiology and Etiology of Lead Toxicity: Pharmacokinetics, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Sources of Lead Exposure accessed on 02.02.2022.
41. Anonymous,“The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India”, part-I vol-VII (Minerals and metals), Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. 2008; 31-33, 252.
42. Misbahuddin Azhar, Sadia Ayub and Mustehasan, ‘Effect of Non Medicinal Therapy of Unani Medicine in Weight And Dyslipidemia Management’ World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 10: (1) 1285-1294.
43. Misbahuddin Azhar, Mustehasan, Mahe Alam, Syed Gulnawaz Ahmad, Nighat Anjum, Neelam Quddusi. “Nephroprotective unani drug Khar-e-Khasak Khurd (Tribulus terrestris linn.) - a review” International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences. 2020; 7(1): 24-36.
44. Azhar MU, Mustehasan. Phyto-pharmacology of an important unani drug Bazr-ul-banj (Hyoscyamus niger linn)-review, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research, 2020; 13(9): 28-32.
45. Azhar MU, Ayub S, Mustehasan. Bio-active compound and pharmacology of Atees (Aconitum heterophyllum wall.)-a unani drug, Indo-American journal Pharmaceutical Research, 2021; 11(6): 1720-1726.
46. Azhar MU, Ayub S, Mustehasan. Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.): review of phytopharmacology and its therapeutic uses in unani system of medicine, Indo-American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021; 8(7): 78-93.
47. Nitin Dubey, Nidhi Dubey, RS Mehta, AK Saluja, DK Jain. Quality Assessment of Kushta-e-Gaodanti: A Traditional Unani Medicine. Asian J. Research Chem. 1(1): July-Sept. 2008; Page 46-50.
48. Asma S.K, Rashid M.A, Qasim M.A, Shoeb A.A, Afzal H, Mustehasan, Garg G.P. Chemical and Microscopic Standardization of Poly-Herbal Unani Drug Sufoof-E-Hazim. Asian J. Research Chem. 4(8): August, 2011; Page 1265-1268.
49. Shiv Shankar Shukla, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf. Simple and Rapid Spectrofluorometric Fingerprint Development of Quinine in Unani Formulation. Asian J. Research Chem. 5(1): January 2012; Page 14-17.
50. Kateryna Taran, Ayaou Abderrahim, Vera Kravchenko, Olena Novosel, Svitlana Taran. Herbal tea for the treatment of Urinary diseases as Potent diuretic and Anti-inflammatory agent. Asian J. Research Chem. 2020; 13(3):175-179. doi: 10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00034.6
51. Shaikh Habeeba, Shaikh Siddiqua. Babchi unani marketed formulation effective in treatment of vitiligo: A case study. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2022; 14(1):1-4. doi: 10.52711/0975-4385.2022.00001
52. Nitin A. Gaikwad, Abhishek S. Pujari, Indrajeet V. Mane, Ganesh B. Vambhurkar, Pravin P. Honmane. Formulation and Evaluation of Hair gel containing Unani Medicine. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2018; 8(3): 129-136.
53. Manika Saha, Suman Sengupta, Biswajit Sinha, Dipu Kumar Mishra. Assessment of Physico-Chemical Properties, Some Heavy Metals and Arsenic of River Teesta in Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India. Asian J. Research Chem. 2017; 10(3):399-404. doi: 10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00068.2
54. Mohammad Rehan, Dhirendra Kumar Bharati, Sushmita Banerjee, Ravindra Kumar Gautam, Mahesh Chandra Chattopadhyaya. Physicochemical and Heavy Metal Analysis of Pond Water Quality of Mau-Aima Vicinity, Allahabad (India). Asian J. Research Chem. 2017; 10(1):29-32. doi: 10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00005.0
55. Ajayi Babatunde Olasunkanmi, Adebayo Albert Ojo, Thompson Samuel Olanrewaju, Ajayi Olubode Olumuyiwa. Sorption Potential of Chestnut (Castanae sativa) Shell as a Biomaterial for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage. Asian J. Research Chem. 2019; 12(6): 345-350. doi: 10.5958/0974-4150.2019.00065.8
56. Milan Hait, Ashutosh Patel, Champa Singh Rajput. Heavy metal levels in selected leafy vegetables obtained from Local market of Dharmjaigarh, Chhattisgarh, India. Asian J. Research Chem. 2017; 10(3):354-358. doi: 10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00060.8