0974-4150 (Online)
0974-4169 (Print)

Author(s): Sanϳay Roy


DOI: 10.52711/0974-4150.2021.00081   

Address: Sanϳay Roy*
Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Netaji Subhas Open University, West Bengal, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2021

One of the oldest habits of human beings is to chew gum that was continuing from ancient civilizations to the modern world. Chew the gum could be a quiet pleasure that charming people for a long time. The non-food item chewing gum has a long history. The stepwise progress of its development has given us better flavour and additional medicative values. The stress-releasing properties and different medical outcomes have to make chewing gum popular for everyone. Chew the gum isn’t bring solely stripling pleasure, in near future ‘chewing gum’ perhaps use as a part of the drug delivery system. Unfortunately, it has also produced some negative effects. Modern chewing gum is made by non-biodegradable hydrophobic polymer together with artificial sweetener and flavour. So chew this sort of synthetic materials over a long time could produce some adverse effects. Again, because of our irresponsible attitude to toss the waste part of chewing gum anywhere creates some kind of serious environmental litter known as ‘gum pollution’. Therefore this widespread habit causes some sort of nuisance. Thus it’s the time to think how chewing gum offers us additional pleasure and benefits while not hampering human health and surroundings.

Cite this article:
Sanϳay Roy. A Review on Profit, Probable Hazard, and Ecological Impacts of Commonly used Chewing Gum. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2021; 14(6):459-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2021.00081

Sanϳay Roy. A Review on Profit, Probable Hazard, and Ecological Impacts of Commonly used Chewing Gum. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2021; 14(6):459-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2021.00081   Available on:

1.    Smith A., Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers, An International Journal on Nutrition, Diet and Nervous System. 2010; 13(1): 7-16. 10.1179/ 147683010X12611460763526
2.    Kamimori GH. Karyekar CS. Otterstetter R. Cox DS. Balkin TJ. Belenky GL. Eddington ND. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers, International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2002; 234: 159-167.
3.    Smith A. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention, Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009; 24(3): 239–247. doi: 10.1002/hup.1020
4.    Fenimore E.L. The History of Chewing Gum1849-2004, In Fritz, D (ed.). Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum. Essex: Kennedy's Publications Ltd., 2008; 1–46. . ISBN 9780955808524.
5.    Margrethe RR. Chewing gum as a drug delivery system. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 1994; 13(1-2): 89-121. 10.1016/0169-409X(94)90028-0
6.    Pedersen M. Margrethe R. Miconazole chewing gum as a drug delivery system test of release promoting additives, Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 1991; 17(3): 411-420. 03639049109043835
7.    Aslani A. Rostami F. Medicated chewing gum, a novel drug delivery system, J. Res. Med. Sci. 2015; 20(4): 403–411. PMC4468459 PMID: 26109999
8.    Gaglianò P. Acciaioli (transl.) S. Bogani (transl.) L. Menici (transl.) S. Trame. Con l'abito. Intorno all'abito. Ediz. italiana e inglese, Edizioni Pendragon, 2005; p. 68, ISBN 978-88-8342-367-3.
9.    Estruch R.A. "Gum base". In Fitz, D. Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum (2 ed.). Essex: Kennedy's Publications Ltd. 2008: 93–118.
10.    Burks R., Chewing Gum." Chemical and Engineering News. 2007; 85(32): 36.
11.    Dimas KS. Pantazis P. Ramanujam R. Review: Chios mastic gum: a plant-produced resin exhibiting numerous diverse pharmaceutical and biomedical properties, In Vivo (Athens, Greece). 2016; 26(5): 777–785. PMID: 22949590    
12.    Clark W., Panning. In Fitz, D. Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum (2nd ed.). Essex: Kennedy's Publications Ltd. 277–291(2008).
13.    Bicerano J. Prediction of Polymer Properties. CRC Press. 2002; (3rd ed.) 784 pages. ISBN 9780824708214
14.    De Roos KB. Flavourings for chewing gum. In Fitz, D. Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum (2nd ed.). Essex: Kennedy's Publications Ltd. 2008; 205–231.ISBN 9780955808524- 0955808529
15.    Davidson JM. Linforth RS. Hollowood TA. Taylor AJ. Effect of sucrose on the perceived flavor intensity of chewing gum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1999; 47(10): 4336–4340. doi: 10.1021/jf9901082.
16.    Potineni RV. Peterson DG. Mechanisms of Flavor Release in Chewing Gum: Cinnamaldehyde. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008; 56(9): 3260–3267. doi: 10.1021/jf0727847
17.    Mestres J. Modern chewing gum. In Fitz, D. Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum (2nd ed.). Kennedy's Publications Ltd. 2008: 47–73. ISBN: 9780955808524 0955808529
18.    Estruch RA. "Gum base". In Fritz, D (ed.). Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum (2 ed.). Essex: Kennedy's Publications Ltd. 2008; 93–118.
19.    LaPorte RJ. Hydrophilic Polymer Coatings for Medical Devices: Structure/Properties, Development, Manufacture and Applications, (1st ed.). CRC Press. 1997; 198 pages. 9780203751381
20.    Jacobsen J. Christrup LL. Jensen NH. Medicated chewing gum. Am J Drug Deliv 2004; 2: 75–88. 00137696-200402020-00001
21.    Edgar WM. Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries--a review. British Dental Journal. 1998; 184(1): 29–32. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4809535
22.    Imfeld T. Chewing Gum—Facts and Fiction: a Review of Gum-Chewing and Oral Health. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 1999; 10(3): 405-19. doi: 10.1177/ 10454411990100030901.
23.    Ahmed Mujib B. R., Grover S., Vinayak V., Mittal S. and Kumar M., Chewing Gum and Oral Health, Indian Journal of Contemporary Dentistry, 2013; 1(1): 72-74 DOI: 10.5958/j.2320-5962.1.1.013 .
24.    Kiet A. Ly PM. Marilynn R. The Potential of Dental-Protective Chewing Gum in Oral Health Interventions. The journal of American dental association, 2008; 139(5): 553-63.doi: 10.14219/ jada.archive.2008.0215.
25.    Itthagarun A. Wei S.H. Chewing gum and saliva in oral health, The Journal of Clinical Dentistry, 1997; 8(6): 159-162. PMID: 9586532
26.    Chattopadhyay S. Raychaudhuri U. Chakraborty R. Artificial sweeteners – a review, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014; 51(4): 611-21. doi: 10.1007/s13197-011-0571-1.
27.    Çaglar E. Kavaloglu SC. Kuscu OO. Sandalli N. Holgerson PL. Twetman S. Effect of chewing gums containing xylitol or probiotic bacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, Clinical Oral Investigations, 2007; 11(4): 425-9. doi: 10.1007/ s00784-007-0129-9.
28.    Steffen M. Soraya CL. Veerasamy Y. Ana CB. Vanessa C. Sugar-free chewing gum and dental caries – a systematic review. Journal of Applied Oral Science. 2007; 15(2): 83-88. doi: 10.1590/ s1678-77572007000200002.
29.    Takada T. Miyamoto T. A fronto-parietal network for chewing of gum: a study on human subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroscience Letters, 2004; 360(3): 137-140. doi: 10.1016/ j.neulet.2004.02.052.
30.    Tänzer U. Von Fintel A. Eikermann T. Chewing Gum and Concentration Performance, Psychological Report.2009; 105(2): 372-374. 10.2466%2FPR0.105.2.372-374
31.    Hirano Y. Onuzuka M. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention. BioMed Research International. 2015; Article ID 367026 |
32.    Onyper SV. Carr T. Farrar L. John S. Floyd BR. Cognitive advantages of chewing gum. Now you see them, now you don't, Appetite. 2011; 57(2): 321–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2011.05.313
33.    Morgan K. Johnson AJ. Miles C. Chewing gum moderates the vigilance decrement. British Journal of Psychology. 2014; 105(2): 214-225.
34.    Kozlov MD. Hughes RW. Jones DM. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall. QJ Exp Psychol (Hove). 2012; 65(3): 501-13. 17470218.2011.629054
35.    Christopher M. Johnson AJ. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: A re-examination. Appetite, 2007; 48(2): 154-158. 10.1016/j.appet.2006.07.082
36.    Andrew J.J. and Christopher M., Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: The independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour, British Journal of Psychology, 2008; 99(2): 293–306. 000712607x228474
37.    Andrew S. Crystal H. Bernadette R. David K. Anthea M. Mark Wetherell. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress, Physiology and Behavior, 2009; 97(3-4): 304–312. j.physbeh.2009.02.028
38.    Juergen B. Kristina N. Henrik B. Herbert L. Matthias P. Severe weight loss caused by chewing gum, BMJ, 2008; 336(7635): 96-97. 10.1136/
39.    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the sugar replacers xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol, lactitol, isomalt, erythritol, D-tagatose, isomaltulose, sucralose and polydextrose and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation, and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, EFSA., 2011; 9(4): 2076. https://
40.    Kazuharu N. Koichiro M. Daisuke T. Yu M. Takafumi O. Shouji H. Yoshiharu M. Effects of gum chewing exercises on saliva secretion and occlusal force in community-dwelling elderly individuals: A pilot study, Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2017; 17(1): 48-53.
41.    Lanigan R. S. and Yamarik T. A., Final report on the safety assessment of BHT(1), Int J Toxicol., 2002; 21 (Suppl 2):19-94. 10915810290096513
42.    Carcasona ER. Bulk sweeteners used in sugar chewing gum. In Fitz, D. Formulation and Production of Chewing and Bubble Gum (2 ed.). Essex: Kennedy's Publications Ltd. P. 2008; 119–132.
43.    Reynolds W.A. et al. Hypothalamic morphology following ingestion of aspartame or MSG in the neonatal rodent and primate: a preliminary report. Environmental Health. 1976; 2(2): 471-480. 15287397609529448
44.    Brunner RL. et al. Aspartame: assessment of developmental psychotoxicity of a new artificial sweetener. Neurobehavioral Toxicology. 1979; 1(1): 79-86. PMID: 551307
45.    Morando S. Angela G. Marco M. Potential Carcinogenic Risks of Aspartame: Sweeteners. 2018; ISBN 978-3-319-27026-5.
46.    Olney J.W. et al., Brain damage in mice from voluntary ingestion of glutamate and aspartate, Neurobehavioral Toxicolology. 1980; 2(2): 125-129. PMID: 7290308
47.    Olney J.W., Excitotoxins in foods. Neurotoxicology. 1994; 15(3): 535-544. PMID: 7854587
48.    Santos NC. Araujo LM. Canto G De L. Guerra ENS. Coelho MS. Borin MF. Metabolic effects of aspartame in adulthood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2018; 58(12): 2068-2081. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1304358.
49.    Hofman DL. Champ CL. Lawton CL. Henderson M. Dye L. A systematic review of cognitive functioning in early treated adults with phenylketonuria. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018; 13(1): 150:
50.    Magnuson BA. Burdock GA. Doull J. et al., Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 2007; 37(8): 629-727. doi: 10.1080/10408440701516184.
51.    Ager DJ. Pantaleone D P. Henderson S A. Katritzky A R. Prakash I. Walters D E. Commercial, Synthetic Nonnutritive Sweeteners. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 1998; 37(13–14): 1802–1817. Doi: 10.1002/ (sici)1521-3773(19980803)37:13/;2-9
52.    Findikli Z. Zeynep F. Sifa T. Determination of the effects of some artificial sweeteners on human peripheral lymphocytes using the comet assay. Journal of toxicology and environmental health sciences. 2014; 6: 147–153.
53.    Whitehouse CR. Boullata J. McCauley LA., The potential toxicity of artificial sweeteners. AAOHN J. 2008; 56(6): 251-9. 10.3928/08910162-20080601-02
54.    Norppa H. Tursi F. Pfaffli,P. Maki-Paakkanen, J. Jarventaus H. Chromosome Damage Induced by Vinyl Acetate through in Vitro Formation of Acetaldehyde in Human Lymphocytes and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells. Cancer Research.1985; 45(10): 4816-4821. PMID: 4027971
55.    Available from:
56.    Bello E. Bravo S. Lerma L. Pérez Mallada N J. Guarín D. Martín Saborido C. Martínez CI. TMJ muscle fatigue assessment in healthy subjects after gum chewing. Gait and Posture. 2014; 39: S136.
57.    Christina M. Daniel O. Birgitta M. Oral parafunctions, piercing and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in high school students. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 2016; 74(4): 279-284. 10.3109/00016357.2015.1114668
58.    Mackert J.R. Jr., Dental amalgam and mercury. J Am Dent Assoc. 1991; 122(8): 54-61. jada.archive.1991.0255
59.    Lorscheider FL. Vimy M.J. Daily dose estimates of mercury from dental amalgams. J Dent Res. 1991; 70(3): 233-7. https:// 00220345910700031601
60.    Lorscheider FL. Vimy MJ. Summers AO. Mercury exposure from "silver" tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a traditional dental paradigm. FASEB Journal. 1995; 9(7): 504-508. 10.1177%2F10454411970080040401
61.    Hujoel PP. Lydon-Rochelle M. Bollen AM. Woods JS. Geurtsen W. del Aguila MA. Mercury Exposure from Dental Filling Placement during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight Risk. Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 161(8): 734-740. kwi100
62.    Wurtman RJ. Aspartame: possible effect on seizure susceptibility. Lancet. 1985; 2(8463): 1060.
63.    Maher TJ. et al. Possible neurologic effects of aspartame, a widely used food additive. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1987; 75(11): 53-57.
64.    Yashiro K, Fujii M, Hidaka O, Takada K. Kinematic Modeling of Jaw-closing Movement during Food Breakage. Journal of Dental Research. 2001; 80(11): 2030-2034. doi:10.1177/00220345010800111601
65.    Kazuo S. Nozomu M. Masataka H. Kunimichi S. Functional Relationships between the Masseter and Sternocleidomastoid Muscle Activities During Gum Chewing. The Angle Orthodontist. 2006; 76(3): 452-458. 076[0452:FRBTMA]2.0.CO;2
66.    Blanksma NG. vav Eijden TM. Electromyographic Heterogeneity in the Human Temporalis and Masseter Muscles during Static Biting, Open\ Close Excursions, and Chewing. Journal of Dental Research. 1995; 74(6): 1318-1327. 10.1177%2F00220345950740061201
67.    Block GA. Persky MS. Shamblin BM. Baltazar MF. Singh B. Sharma A. Pergola P. Smits G. Comelli M.C. Effect of Salivary Phosphate-Binding Chewing Gum on Serum Phosphate in Chronic Kidney Disease. Nephron Clinical Practice. 2013; 123(1-2): 93-101. 000351850
68.    Blanksma NG, van Eijden TMGJ. Electromyographic Heterogeneity in the Human Temporalis and Masseter Muscles during Static Biting, Open\ Close Excursions, and Chewing. Journal of Dental Research. 1995; 74(6): 1318-1327. doi:10.1177/00220345950740061201
69.    Octavia P. Beverly B. Willard Mc. Effect of gum hardness on chewing pattern. Experimental Neurology. 1986; 92: 502-512.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Subhasish Chaudhur, Biswajit Chandra Das

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rummi Devi Saini

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2018.00037.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S. J. Daharwal, Veena Devi Thakur, Bhanu Pratap Sahu

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sushil R. Mathapati, Vikas B. Suryawanshi,Abhay S. Bondge,Jairaj K. Dawale

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2018.00044.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): E.K. Kirupa Vasam, G. Allen Gnana Raj

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Kencha Swathi, M. Sreenivasulu, T. Hari Narayana Reddy, Y. Pradeep Kumar, G. Mahaboob Basha

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Y. A. Jaliwala,Rahul Chaturvedi, Arvind Rathore, Amit Pandit, P.K. Mohanty

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S.M. Sarode, A.R. Bendale, M. Mittal, M.A. Chaudhri, M.K. Kale, G.Vidyasagar, B. Shrivastava

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S. Saha, A. Roy, S. Bahadur, S. Chandrakar, A. Choudhury, S. Das

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rajesh B, Ramasubbualakshmi A, Gopalasatheeskumar K, Bharathi D, Nishanth R

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00030.9         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Pournima Yadav, Sachin Rohane, Atish Velhal

DOI: 10.52711/0974-4150.2021.00079         Access: Closed Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry (AJRC) is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to pure and applied chemistry..... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150 

Popular Articles

Recent Articles